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Post  Admin on Sat 16 Jun 2018, 9:06 pm

Rock Models Suggest Phlegraean Fields Volcano More Likely To Erupt Than Previously Thought
David Bressan , CONTRIBUTOR
I deal with the rocky road to our modern understanding of earth  
Opinions expressed by Forbes Contributors are their own.
The volcanic nature of the Campi Flegrei, or Phlegraean Fields, was known already in ancient times. The various hot springs and fumaroles were a popular holiday destination for wealthy Romans and in 79 AD the nearby Mount Vesuvius erupted, destroying the famous city of Pompeii. In 1539 a smaller volcanic eruption formed the 403-foot-high cone of the Monte Nuovo, the new mountain.

Victorian geologist Charles Lyell argued in 1830 that a magma chamber deep underground would not only explain the active volcanoes, but also a strange phenomenon he had observed. On the columns of a Roman ruin he noted boreholes in the rocks, made by marine mollusks and now found 22 feet above recent sea-level. The only possible explanation to Lyell was a large magma chamber, periodically refilling with molten rock, would first pull the columns below sea-level, then after some time, push the ground up and lift the columns again above the sea.

The Phlegraean Fields, the Monte Nuovo is shown as larger red area, northwest of the harbor of Pozzuoli. Map from SUESS, E. Das Antlitz der Erde (1892). Image in public domain.

Earthquakes were recorded in the 1950s, 1970s and 1980s, followed by a measurable ground uplift. Today we know that the magma chamber of the Campi Flegrei is located at a depth of 1.8 miles below ground level. How exactly the magma causes the observed ground movements is still not fully understood. The classic model argues that as the magma chamber fills, the larger volume pushes simply the overlying ground up. An alternative model suggests that hot fluids from the magma heat the rock and a large body of groundwater, found in the underground of the Campi Flegrei. As hot water possesses a larger volume, it expands and the ground is pushed up.

In any case, simulations done by a research team of the University College London and the Vesuvius Observatory in Naples and published under the title Progressive approach to eruption at Campi Flegrei caldera in southern Italy, have shown that this periodical uplift causes an accumulation of stress in the rocks above the magma chamber, making it more likely that magma will find a way to the surface, increasing the possibility of an eruption. Other volcanic activity, like gas released from the underground, already showed that the Phlegraean Fields are still quite active.

Since 2005 the ground around the city of Pozzuoli, located almost at the center of the Campi Flegrei caldera (a large, partially collapsed volcanic crater), has risen by 1.25 feet. Both effects are not unusual in the area. The columns described by Lyell (and also located in Pozzuoli) show that uplift occurred repeatedly in the last 2,000 years and the ground even periodically deflated again. However, the new model on how the rocks, covering the magma chamber, react to the phases of uplift showed an unexpected behavior.

During uplift the rocks deform. Under tension, rocks become more brittle, making it more easy for the magma to break the rocks and form a volcanic conduit to the surface. Former geological models assumed that as soon as the pressure in the magma chamber decreased, the tension in the overlying rocks would decrease as well. However, the new model suggests that tensions tend to constantly accumulate over time. When the ground is uplifted, the rocks break and magma is injected from the deep-seated magma chamber  into shallower areas of the Phlegraean Fields. The magma, even if it not erupts to the surface, cools and solidifies in the formed crevasses. This newly formed rock-volume tends to maintain the surrounding rock under pressure and tension. With every phase of uplift, the rocks are exposed to higher tension forces, becoming more brittle and prone to break each time.

This new model of rock behavior under increased stress by magma movements can't predict a specific eruption. However, it suggests that eruptions will more likely occur in the future, as the rock strength tends to decrease, slowly but constantly over time. Instead of one large uplift, a number of minor uplifts will suffice to break the already weakened rocks, causing the eruption of a new volcano.

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Post  Admin on Thu 07 Jun 2018, 12:45 pm

BIRTH PANGS – All-Time Record 500 Earthquakes Hit The Big Island As Rivers Of Lava Pour Out Of Volcanoes In Hawaii And Guatemala
Jun 5, 2018 | 0  |     
BIRTH PANGS – All-Time Record 500 Earthquakes Hit The Big Island As Rivers Of Lava Pour Out Of Volcanoes In Hawaii And Guatemala
(By Michael Snyder) What is causing our planet to shake so violently all of a sudden?  Rivers of lava have been pouring out of the Kilauea Volcano in Hawaii for weeks, a massive eruption of Mount Merapi just a few days ago shot volcanic ash 38,000 feet into the air, and now rivers of lava are pouring out of Guatemala’s Fuego Volcano.  Overall, Volcano Discovery is reporting that a total of 34 volcanoes around the world are erupting right now.  So what is causing so much seismic activity all of a sudden, and is this a new trend that is going to continue?
If you have followed my work for an extended period of time, you already know that I tend to track these things very carefully.  Major changes appear to be happening to our world, but most people have not been paying much attention up until now. For most Americans, what is going on around the rest of the globe is of little interest, but all of the shaking in Hawaii sure is starting to get a lot of attention from the mainstream media.  On Sunday, the Big Island was hit by a huge 5.5-magnitude earthquake… 
READ MORE http://theeconomiccollapseblog.com/archives/earths-crust-in-turmoil-all-time-record-500-earthquakes-hit-the-big-island-as-rivers-of-lava-pour-out-of-volcanoes-in-hawaii-and-guatemala

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Post  Admin on Wed 06 Jun 2018, 1:15 pm

Hawaii volcano: Kilauea’s magnetic field goes OPPOSITE direction – sending compasses crazy
MOUNT Kilauea, Hawaii’s erupting volcano, has a magnetic field which flows in the OPPOSITE direction to the rest of the planet, scientists have discovered.
PUBLISHED: 05:33, Tue, Jun 5, 2018 | UPDATED: 14:36, Tue, Jun 5, 2018
The bizarre finding, which sends compasses into an uncontrollable spin, had scientists baffled – while locals linked it to Hawaiian folklore which attaches deep spiritual significance to the massive volcano which is almost one million years old.

But now the reason for the magnetic volte-face has been explained – and it’s even more mind-blowing.

According to geologists the molten rock below the Mount Kilauea caldera contains vast amounts of iron and is effectively a sea of floating magnets.

About 780,000 years ago the rock cooled and simultaneously the Earth’s magnetic field inexplicably FLIPPED – the South Pole became the North and the North Pole became the South.

Hawaii latest: Compasses are being sent crazy by the anomalyGETTY

Hawaii latest: Compasses are being sent crazy by the anomaly
Hawaii volcano eruption: Watch CURTAIN of lava SPRING OUT
Hawaii volcano enters 'QUIET period' and scientists REVEAL why

But the sea of iron magnets below Mount Kilauea were now cooled and trapped in the now solid rock – with their poles facing the opposite way to everything else on the planet.

Studies into lava flows both below and above the Earth’s surface are slowly unlocking the reasons why the planet’s field flips every so often.

Brad Singer, a geology professor at the University of Wisconsin–Madison, who investigates lava flow magnetic fields, said: “When the lava flows erupt and cool in the Earth’s magnetic field, they acquire a memory of the magnetic field at that time.

“It’s very difficult to destroy that in a lava flow once it’s formed. You then have a recording of what the paleofield direction was like on Earth.”

Experts have explained the reason for the responseEPA

Experts have explained the reason for the response
Hawaii volcano eruption: Latest pictures of Kilauea volcano eruption
Fri, June 1, 2018
Staggering images show the sheer scale of the Hawaiian Kilauea volcano as lava and hazardous fumes continue to spew

Kilauea's lower east rift zone eruption continues EPA1 of 100
Kilauea volcano on the big island of Hawaii seen from the International Space Station 
Lava flows past the remains of a greenhouse as it makes its way to the ocean
Historic records show that the strength of the magnetic field is declining very rapidly

Hawaii volcano expert

He added that the flip occurs during periods of declining strength of the Earth’s magnetic field and that the planet was rapidly approaching another one.

Co-researcher Kenneth Hoffman California Polytechnic State University at San Luis Obispo and UW–Madison who has been researching field reversals for over 30 years.

Hoffman and Singer are focusing on rocks that contain evidence of times that the main north-south field has weakened, which is one sign that the polarity may flip direction.

Singer said: “Current evidence suggests we are now approaching one of these transitional states because the main magnetic field is relatively weak and rapidly decreasing.
Scientists were originally baffled by the situationEPA
Scientists were originally baffled by the situation
Hawaii volcano: Aerial view of lava fountain in Leilani Estates
Play Video
“While the last polarity reversal occurred several hundred thousand years ago, the next might come within only a few thousand years.
“Right now, historic records show that the strength of the magnetic field is declining very rapidly. From a quick back-of-the-envelope prediction, in 1,500 years the field will be as weak as it’s ever been and we could go into a state of polarity reversal.
“One broad goal of our research is to provide some predictive capability for what could happen and what could be the signs of the next reversal

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Post  Admin on Tue 05 Jun 2018, 8:30 pm

Lava Cuts Off Last Remaining Escape Route for Group of Hawaiians Stranded Without Food or Water
By Jack Davis 
June 3, 2018 at 2:00pm
https://www.westernjournal.com/lava-cuts-off-last-remaining-escape-route-for-group-of-hawaiians-stranded-without-food-or-water/?New eruptions from the Kilauea volcano have left some Hawaii residents stranded with no electricity or running water in an area entirely cut off by lava.

Hawaii Civil Defense Service officials said about a dozen people that they know of are stranded in the area, CNN reported. Phone lines and cell towers are also out in the area.

“There’s no way out,” BBC correspondent Kylie Morris told viewers, according to The Express.

“It’s extraordinary. I can see a road, a freeway, down there where there’s just a tiny circle that is still visible and all the rest of it completely covered up by the magma,” said Morris, who was traveling over the isolated area by helicopter.

Last week, officials encouraged residents to leave and said some areas have now become off limits to rescue teams.

TRENDING: Senator Urges Colleagues to Work Through Weekends and Recess To Confirm Trump Nominees

“I can no longer ask of … police, fire, National Guard, to go in the dark of a neighborhood they don’t know, to say ‘you must get out now,'” Hawaii County Mayor Harry Kim said Tuesday. “Last night I told them I can no longer afford to put residents at risk.”

Officials have said those who remain could be airlifted out if necessary.
Anthony Quintano
1 Jun
This lava flow could charge right through Kapoho Bay into Champagne Ponds over the weekend. #Kilauea #Hawaii pic.twitter.com/nXYIICBZ0I

Anthony Quintano
 This is just devastating. The lava flow is going to take out Kapoho #Kilauea #Hawaii pic.twitter.com/vtJqeZdo8o

6:44 PM - Jun 3, 2018
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The eruption, which has destroyed 87 homes in the past four weeks, could encircle more locales, officials said, citing the community of Kapoho and MacKenzie State Park, which could be cut off soon.

Residents were advised to evacuate by Friday afternoon.

“They are being asked to leave. Period,” said county spokeswoman Janet Snyder.

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Post  Admin on Mon 04 Jun 2018, 9:04 am

25 killed, dozens injured & missing after Guatemala's Volcano of Fire shoots ash 10km into air
Published time: 3 Jun, 2018 22:11
Edited time: 4 Jun, 2018 04:01
At least 25 people have been killed and dozens injured, after the Volcan de Fuego in Guatemala erupted, shooting smoke and rocks 10 km into the air and forcing a mass exodus from nearby villages blanketed by ash.
Twenty-five people have been reported dead, mainly in the community of El Rodeo, the National Coordinator for Disaster Reduction in Guatemala (Conred) confirmed, while at least another 20 were injured. Local reports indicate that some 2,000 people have fled the area.

At least two of the victims were children, who burned to death while standing on a bridge watching the eruption unfold, according to the head of Conred Sergio Cabanas.

Noti Bomba

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