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ISRAEL HISTORY Empty Re: ISRAEL HISTORY

Post  Admin on Thu 01 Oct 2020, 10:11 pm

The Whole Jewish History in One Hour

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ISRAEL HISTORY Empty Re: ISRAEL HISTORY

Post  Admin on Fri 18 Sep 2020, 12:08 am

Jewish History
 
  Elul 28
In 1849, the first synagogue was dedicated in Cape Town, South Africa, called Tikvat Israel -- "Hope of Israel," referring to the Cape of Good Hope. Originally, the Dutch East India Company's rules required that all residents must be Christians. Only after freedom of religion was introduced in 1803 did Jewish settlers from England and Germany come in significant numbers to Cape Town. Around the turn of the 20th century, the development of diamond and gold mines attracted a large number of Jewish immigrants. South African Jewry enjoyed great prosperity, strongly represented in the commercial and professional sectors. The Jewish community was characterized by a deep attachment to traditional Jewish values and strong bonds with Israel. The Jewish population of South Africa reached a peak of 120,000 in the early 1970s, but with political turmoil and the dissolution of Apartheid, tens of thousands of Jews left to settle in Israel, Australia and the U.S. Tikvat Israel synagogue -- South Africa's first -- is still standing today.
https://www.aish.com/dijh/Elul_28.html?s=mm

Elul 28
Happy New Year

I am confused about some time frames. When is the Jewish New Year? Is it the month of Tishrei (Rosh Hashanah) or the month of Nissan (Passover)? In the Bible (Exodus 12:2), God says the first day of the year is in the spring, but I always see Tishrei referred to as the new year. Can you clarify this?

The Aish Rabbi Replies:
Excellent question!
Rosh Hashanah commemorates the sixth day of creation - the day that the first human being was created. The reason why we celebrate Rosh Hashanah on this day (and not on the first day of creation) is because the entire world was only brought into existence for the sake of man.

The reason why the months are counted from Nissan is because that is when God brought the Jews out of slavery in Egypt - marking the birth of our people.

This reflects two aspects of God's involvement in the world. With Rosh Hashanah, we acknowledge God's role as Creator, while Passover commemorates God as the guiding hand of history. This dual-facet is reflected in the Kiddush over wine, where we say that Shabbat is "a remembrance of creation... a remembrance of the Exodus from Egypt."
So although the years are counted from Rosh Hashanah, the months are counted from the month of Nissan. Hence we have two new years!
https://www.aish.com/atr/Happy_New_Year.html?s=mm
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Post  Admin on Tue 04 Aug 2020, 7:28 pm

https://www.facebook.com/JewishStandard/videos/10152897642203717/

Here is a rare video showing children in Hungary singing a version of HaTikva before the Holocaust caused most of them to be murdered.
So touching and so sad..The song, which means "The Hope" became Israel's national anthem when the state was established.

incredibly rare footage of children in Munkács, Hungary singing a version of HaTikva prior to the Holocaust, in the early 1930's. Most of the children were murdered by the Nazis.
The song, which means "The Hope" became Israel's national anthem when the state was established.
Source: =68.ARDl_HOhfTM1Ajho_5zBjGwA0a_zr2flVw1zrYD1zz_nck1DAnQlihoeOffNN-bWHxK82YHtqZjBYDXXX6AC3F10zligztQi-usccNMqOoXw2xYVl4OoLLT3Y0S_bBSGh6TMMccMxj9VVWxHNrqpFeYh7yGBQitBRTPTqxmNN9xLVu8p7IHgY2FyxgU9KRs95i24d13dP_DSzbqR6QJFCysPLLiMYWJDCG5r_nhflazYLJeySD2CQjGEwY0FIVsr_-7QcbtKMkcR4ZYcpCR-JSEYsz9gkwDTBLJQU3gi-ygA-d6acegVEeuO-Te8jM5myA979SY]דער שְטֵעטְל
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Post  Admin on Wed 06 May 2020, 6:47 pm

5 Jewish reasons to love Vera Lynn!
Ahead of a national singalong of 'We'll Meet Again' on the 75th anniversary of VE Day, we compile all the heimische reasons to celebrate this 103-year-old British icon...!
By FRANCINE WOLFISZ
May 6, 2020, 3:29 pm
Vera Lynn, a British icon
On Friday, 8 May, the nation has been asked to join in a mass singalong of We’ll Meet Again, the 1939 song made famous by Dame Vera Lynn, aka “the Forces’ Sweetheart”, in celebration of 75 years since VE Day. Here’s the top five heimische reasons to celebrate this beloved 103-year-old singer…

The bandleader who made her famous
Bert Ambrose, born Benjamin Baruch Ambrose in Warsaw, 1896, was a well-known English bandleader and violinist. After forming his own, highly-acclaimed dance band in the 1930s, Ambrose went on to discover a number of new acts, including Vera Lynn, who sang with his orchestra from 1937 to 1940…leading to her meeting her Jewish husband.
A musical match!
In 1941, Lynn married Harry Lewis, a clarinetist and saxophonist, and fellow member of Ambrose’s orchestra, who she had met two years earlier. The couple moved to Finchley after the war and had a daughter, Virginia. Harry died in 1998.
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Kind to the Kinder
In a 2017 interview with The Guardian, magician and mentalist David Berglas revealed his special connection to Dame Vera, as a German-Jewish refugee. He said: “She was one of the few artists to do a show for Jewish refugee children, to bring them over before war broke out. She was singing with the Ambrose orchestra and took part in a charity show to raise funds to get them out of Germany. I thank her from the bottom of my heart – because I was one of those children.”
Music maestros
We’ll Meet Again became an iconic song of reuniting with loved ones after the war, but Dame Vera scored success with two other wartime hits: The White Cliffs of Dover, which was penned by Walter Kent and lyricist Nat Burton, born Nat Schwartz, and A Nightingale Sang in Berkeley Square, which was composed by Manning Sherwin and had lyrics by Eric Maschwitz, the son of a Jewish-Lithuanian immigrant.
Seen on screen
Dame Vera’s version of We’ll Meet Again has been frequently referenced in popular culture since it was first released in 1939 – and most recently by the Queen in her lockdown speech to the nation. But it was also most famously used in Jewish director Stanley Kubrick’s cult 1964 black comedy, Dr Strangelove, starring Peter Sellers and George C Scott.
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Post  Admin on Wed 05 Feb 2020, 6:12 pm

https://www.jewishpress.com/news/israel/jerusalem/tau-dig-outside-jerusalem-unearths-a-rival-to-king-solomons-temple/2020/02/03/?fbclid=IwAR070WYxjgYOT3D14EJPj7VSawHQSBEHycxEaLup0PB4nALwgDAdJHpGrE8
TAU Dig Outside Jerusalem Unearths a Rival to King Solomon’s Temple
By David Israel - 8 Shevat 5780 – February 3, 2020
Archaeologists from Tel Aviv University led by Prof. Oded Lipschits and Ph.D. candidate Shua Kisilevitz continue the excavating of a unique temple from the time of the First Jewish Temple at Tel Moẓa near Jerusalem. The temple complex, which is the only one of its kind discovered to date in the realm of the kingdoms of Israel and Judea, is similar in many respects to the detailed description of temple built by King Solomon, in Kings I chapter 6.

Researchers say the site contributes greatly to understanding the First Temple period and to comparing the archaeological findings – here and in other sites – with the Bible narrative.

Their article, A Rival to Solomon’s Temple – The Place of Worship at Tel Moẓa Explained, was published in in Biblical Archaeology Review last December. See also: Another Temple in Judah! (PDF).


Ritual stand base with remains of decoration in the shape of a pair of lions or sphinxes in the Moẓa temple / K. Amit
“The excavation at Tel Moẓa began in 1993, as a rescue excavation by the Israel Antiquities Authority – in preparation for the construction of a section of road that will replace the exit roundabout at Highway 1,” says Kisilevitz. “Additional rescue excavations were carried out in 2002, 2003 and 2012-13. These excavations uncovered an important site, whose dominant period was the time of the First Temple – From the 10th to the early 6th century BCE (Second Iron Age).”

“The findings indicate that there was an important economic and administrative center here, at the fertile Moẓa valley, with dozens of silos and two large grain storage facilities,” Kisilevitz continues. “At the center of the site, a monumental temple complex of the ‘North Syrian Temple’ type was exposed, whose plan is typical of the Ancient Near East. Among other things, an altar for offering sacrifices was revealed, alongside a table for offerings and many ritual utensils were discovered at the site – among them human- and horse- shaped clay figurines.”


Human figurine from the Moẓa temple / K. Amit
“The temple at Moẓa is the only temple compound of this type discovered to date in the realms of Judea and Israel,” she said. “Its architectural plan and decorations that adorn the ritual vessels are similar to those attributed to Solomon’s Temple in Jerusalem, and described in detail in the Book of Kings I chapter 6.”

In March 2019, following the completion of the construction of the bridge leading to Jerusalem and the removal of sand fillings that covered the site during construction, the archaeologists returned to Tel Moẓa, this time as an academic excavation of Tel Aviv University.


Horse figurine from the Moẓa temple / K. Amit
“The excavations this season were very focused, and the goal was twofold: first, continue to expose the temple structure; and second, use advanced scientific technologies to better understand the site,” says Kisilevitz. “We discovered that the structure was at least 21 meters (63 ft.) long, and that underneath the temple courtyard floor there are remains of another worship-related structure, probably from the 10th century BCE.”

Researchers point out that the temple complex, with its various layers, constitutes an unprecedented finding in the archeology of Israel: worship structures erected at the beginning of the Second Iron Age, and a temple that continued to exist throughout most of the First Temple period, alongside Solomon’s Temple in Jerusalem. Therefore, the site contributes greatly to understanding the evolution of worship in Judea, and to understanding the process of forming the Kingdom of Judea.

During the excavation, the researchers sampled materials from four layers exposed in a section on the eastern side of the temple, and submitted them for testing using various technologies: OSL – physical method for dating dirt samples; Carbon 14 dating test for organic materials; and micro-archeology techniques using microscopes, infrared rays, and other scientific instruments to reveal the hidden components within the archaeological findings.


Horse figurine from the Moẓa temple / K. Amit
“The results of the tests will give us a lot of information about the temple,” Kisilevitz says. “Among other things, we hope they will help us to accurately determine the dates of the different layers, find out if the structure has been abandoned at any time, and reconstruct the nature of the activities that took place in the temple courtyard.”

“Since most of the ritual activity took place in the courtyard, while the temple structure itself was only accessible to priests, we hope that further excavation in this area will reveal more objects of worship,” she says.

“The findings of the excavation at Tel Moẓa, past, present and future, are of great importance in understanding the First Temple period, and comparing the archaeological findings to the Bible,” Prof. Lipschits summarizes.

“The very presence of a temple similar to Solomon’s Temple just a few miles from Jerusalem raises many questions,” he notes, “Since the biblical text is rife with struggles against erecting worship sites outside Jerusalem, and even explicitly states that the God of Israel must be worshiped only in the temple in Jerusalem. Furthermore, the books of Kings II and II Chronicles speak of two religious reforms that dealt with precisely this point: King Hezekiah’s reform at the end of the 8th century BCE, and the more radical reform of King Josiah, which destroyed all places of worship outside Jerusalem in the late 7th century BCE.”

“We hope our findings will help us answer a variety of intriguing questions: who erected the temple in Moẓa and when?” Lipschits elaborates. “What ritual has taken place in it at different times? What was the relationship between the community around the temple in Moẓa and the community around the temple in Jerusalem? Did the priests of the temple of Moẓa at some point accept the supremacy of the priests and rulers of the temple in Jerusalem, and if so, when did this happen?

Did the Temple in Moẓa survive Hezekiah and Josiah’s religious reforms, and did it continue to operate until the destruction of the Kingdom of Judea by the Babylonians in 586 BC?”

Two additional excavation seasons are planned at Tel Moẓa, in the spring of 2020 and 2021, with students and researchers from around the world, especially from Israel, Germany, the Czech Republic and the US. Researchers are confident that many exciting discoveries await them on the unique site that does not stop surprising…
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Post  Admin on Mon 06 Jan 2020, 4:14 pm

https://www.breakingisraelnews.com/142814/measuring-table-for-wine-oil-during-temple-services-discovered-near-temple-mt/?fbclid=IwAR1XumFd2nosLkR5675h2zMhnHzFLOH7LzXEoWMrVobu37tVRWqGlwJWE_c
Measuring Table for Wine, Oil During Temple Services Discovered Near Temple Mt.
By BIN staff January 6, 2020 , 1:11 pm
oil for lighting, spices for the anointing oil and for the aromatic incense Exodus 25:6 (The Israel Bible™)
courtesy: screenshot
The top of a rare 2000-year-old measuring table used for liquid items such as wine and olive oil has been discovered in what appears to be a major town square along the Pilgrimage Road in Jerusalem, during excavations conducted by the Israel Antiquities Authority in the City of David National Park. In addition to the measuring table, tens of stone measurement weights were also discovered in the same vicinity. These all support the theory that this was the location of the main city square and market on route to the Temple during the Second Temple Period, in what was historically known as Jerusalem’s lower city * It appears that the market served as the focal point of trade and commerce. * Researchers suggest that this area housed the offices of the “Agoranomos” – the officer in charge of supervising measurements and weights in the city of Jerusalem.

The top part of the measuring table. Photograph: Ari Levi, Israel Antiquities Authorities
According to Prof. Ronny Reich, who is currently researching the recent discovery: “In a portion of the “standart of volumes” table uncovered in the City of David, we see two of the deep cavities remain, each with a drain at its bottom. The drain at the bottom could be plugged with a finger, filled with a liquid of some type, and once the finger was removed, the liquid could be drained into a container, therefore determining the volume of the container, using the measurement table as a uniform guideline. This way, traders could calibrate their measuring instruments using a uniform standard.”

Reich adds that “this is a rare find. Other stone artifacts were very popular in Jerusalem during the Second Temple, however so far, excavations in Jerusalem have only uncovered two similar tables that were used for measuring volume – one during the 1970’s in the Jewish Quarter excavations, and another in the Shu’afat excavations, in Northern Jerusalem.”

According to archaeologist Ari Levi of the Israel Antiquities Authority, one of the directors of the excavations of the Pilgrimage Road, “The Pilgrimage Road excavations in the City of David have also uncovered a great number of Stone scale-weightsmeasuring different values. The weights found are of the type which was typically used in Jerusalem. The fact that there were city-specific weights at the site indicates the unique features of the economy and trade in Jerusalem during the Second Temple period, possibly due to the

influence of the Temple itself.” The Stone scale-weightshave a flat, round shape, and they are made in different sizes, representing different masses.
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Post  Admin on Sun 29 Dec 2019, 10:20 pm

http://www.israelnationalnews.com/News/News.aspx/273803
Hanukkah Gelt: 1,200-year old hoard of gold coins discovered in Yavneh, Israel
Archaeologists uncover 1,200-year-old hoard of gold coins stashed away in a clay jug. 'This could have been someone's personal savings.'

Arutz Sheva Staff, 29/12/19 20:37
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The gold coins
The gold coinsLiat Nadav-Ziv, Israel Antiquities Authority
“Chanukah gelt” was found last week during archaeological excavations in Yavneh during excavations conducted by the Israel Antiquities Authority prior to the development of a new neighborhood at the behest of the Israel Lands Authority.

The archaeologists were surprised to discover a broken clay juglet containing gold coins dating to the Early Islamic period. The excavations revealed an ancient industrial area which was active for several hundred years, and the archaeologists suggest that the shiny treasure may have been a potter’s personal “piggy bank”.

“I was in the middle of cataloging a large number of artifacts we found during the excavations when all of a sudden I heard shouts of joy” said Liat Nadav-Ziv, co-director alongside Dr. Elie Haddad of the excavation on behalf of the Israel Antiquities Authority.

“I ran towards the shouting and saw Marc Molkondov, a veteran archaeologist of the Israel Antiquities Authority approaching me excitedly. We quickly followed him to the field where we were surprised at the sight of the treasure. This is without a doubt a unique and exciting find especially during the Chanukah holiday”.

Inspection of the Yavneh gold coins conducted by Dr. Robert Kool, an expert on ancient coins at the Israel Antiquities Authority, dates the coins to the early Abbasid Period (9th century CE). Among the coins, is a gold Dinar from the reign of the Caliph Haroun A-Rashid (786-809 CE), on whom the popular story “Arabian Nights” also known as “One Thousand and One Nights” was based.

“The hoard also includes coins that are rarely found in Israel” says Dr. Kool. “These are gold dinars issued by the Aghlabid dynasty that ruled in North Africa, in the region of modern Tunisia, on behalf of the Abbasid Caliphate centered in Bagdad”. “Without a doubt this is a wonderful Chanukah present for us” concluded Dr. Kool.

The large-scale excavation, carried out southeast of Tel Yavneh, revealed an unusually large amount of pottery kilns that was active at the end of the Byzantine and beginning of the Early Islamic period (7th – 9th centuries CE).

The kilns were for commercial production of store-jars, cooking pots and bowls. The gold hoard was found inside a small juglet, near the entrance to one of the kilns and according to the archaeologists could have been the potter’s personal savings.

In a different area of the site, the remains of a large industrial installation were revealed dated the Persian period (4th – 5th centuries BCE) used for the production of wine.

According to Dr. Haddad of the Israel Antiquities Authority “initial analysis of the contents of the installation revealed ancient grape pips (seeds). The size and number of vats found at the site indicated that wine was produced on a commercial scale, well beyond the local needs of Yavneh’s ancient inhabitants”.
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ISRAEL HISTORY Empty Did the French Hijack a Jewish Heritage Site?

Post  Admin on Sun 08 Dec 2019, 4:00 pm

https://www.aish.com/jw/me/Did-the-French-Hijack-a-Jewish-Heritage-Site.html?s=mm
Did the French Hijack a Jewish Heritage Site?
Dec 7, 2019
by Dr. Richard Rossin and Amb. Freddy Eytan

Did the French Hijack a Jewish Heritage Site?
The controversy behind Jerusalem’s Tomb of the Kings.

France owns four sites of religious significance in Jerusalem.

The Roman Catholic Church of St. Anne was established by the Crusaders but was converted into a mosque after their defeat by Saladin (in 1187) and subsequently given by Sultan Abdulmecid I to Napoleon III in 1856. The building was restored and entrusted to the guardianship of the “White (robed) Fathers.”

The Benedictine monastery in Abu Ghosh, an ancient Crusader fortress that also fell to the Ottoman Empire, was given to France in 1873. The Benedictine monks constructed a monastery on the site, which has been inhabited by monks and nuns since 1976, living in two separate communities, where services are held.

The Church of Pater Noster, built adjacent to Roman Emperor Constantine’s Church of Eléona [olive grove in Greek] on the Mount of Olives, is much older and has a more turbulent history. The church was constructed by Helena, Constantine’s mother, who converted to Christianity. A convent was added in 430, built above the cave1 where Jesus, according to Catholic belief, taught the “Lord’s Prayer,” which includes large parts of the Jewish liturgy of Kaddish and the Eighteen Benedictions. The building was burned down by the Persians in 614 but was rebuilt before being destroyed by Arab invaders led by Caliph Omar in 638.

In 807, Charlemagne gained the protection of Caliph Harun al-Rashid for Christian holy sites and the Benedictine monks remaining in Eléona. However, in 1009, the Caliph al-Hakim destroyed the shrine. The Crusaders built an oratory amid the ruins in 1106, and the church was rebuilt in 1152 by the Danish bishop of Viborg. In 1345, under the Mamlukes, it fell into disrepair. During the 19th century, the Latin patriarch in Jerusalem lamented its loss. French Princess Heloise de la Tour d’Auvergne purchased six hectares of the site, and in 1868 she built a cloister. Then, in 1872, a Carmelite convent was constructed, and excavations were carried out there.2 She gave the monastery to the French government two years later.


All of these sites are inherited properties from the Christian past and are not explicitly related to French culture.

One is from the Roman Empire, and the other two were built by French colonizers, according to current terminology. Nevertheless, a consular mass is held inside the Church of St. Anne every July 14th (Bastille Day). The French consul, who must be Catholic according to international agreements signed 150 years ago, never fails to invite a representative of the Palestinian Authority. Yet, no such invitation to Israeli officials appears on the consulate’s website.

The Tomb of the Kings circa 1895 (Library of Congress)

The fourth French holy site has a fascinating, romantic history. This is the Tomb of the Kings or in French, “Tombeau des Rois,” and the kings who rest there are Kurdish Jews.

It is the tomb, hewn into the rock, of Queen Helena of Adiabene and her son Izates II.3 Helena, originally from Kurdistan, converted to Judaism and moved to Jerusalem around 30 CE, and she became a great philanthropist to the Temple and needy Jews.4 Her son also converted to Judaism, independently from his mother. His palace, burned by the Romans when they took control of Jerusalem in 70 CE, was found in 2007 slightly south of the Temple Mount, within what was a Greek fortress captured by the Hasmoneans, the Acra. Izates converted publicly when he ascended the Kurdish throne and was followed by many of his subjects.

Also buried there are First Century figures, Nicodemus Ben Gurion, a wealthy philanthropist, and his friend Kalba Savua, the rich father-in-law of Rabbi Akiva, who lived during the era of the destruction of the Second Temple. The site is located about 800 meters north of Jerusalem’s Old City walls.

Flavius Josephus described the mausoleum, its dimensions, the 28-meter wall, its three pyramids (since disappeared), its monumental staircase, and a round stone above the door. The Greek geographer Pausanias (115-180) reported that “this door was only opened once a year like an automaton and was one of the wonders of the world.”

When French Viscount Francois-Rene Chateaubriand visited the site in 1806, he was told that according to folk memory, it was the tomb of Kings David and Solomon and their descendants. According to legend, there was a hidden treasure desired by the greedy Ottoman governor of Jerusalem, who severely damaged the site (in 1847), searching for it.

The Tomb of the Kings in 1898 visited by German Emperor Wilhelm II (Library of Congress)

Several years later, in 1851, Louis Felicien de Saulcy, a French artilleryman who became an archeologist, coin collector, and close associate of Napoleon III, visited the site and was convinced that it was a mausoleum for the kings of Judea. At this time, Orientalism was very fashionable in Europe. For travelers, the wretched state of the country held an exotic charm that added excitement to their visits. During this era, there were several European consuls in Jerusalem. De Saulcy celebrated Christmas Eve with French Consul Paul-Émile Botta5 before visiting the site.

He brought the remains of the sarcophagi he found back to the Louvre in France, and informed the Academie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres of his findings. This led to 10 years of furious debate between archeologists before de Saulcy returned to the Middle East. In 1863, he obtained official authorization to carry out the first archeological digs on hallowed ground. The Turkish Sultan could not refuse his ally from the Crimean War (1853-1856), which was a consequence of a conflict between French Catholics and Russian Orthodox Christians over the protection of their holy places, particularly in Jerusalem. During de Saulcy’s excavations, a secret funeral chamber was discovered containing a royal sarcophagus, the contents of which immediately disintegrated into dust, with the exception of a femur. The experts concluded that this gravesite belonged to Helena of Adiabene. However, the archeologist refused to admit this, insisting that since she was the wife of King Sedecias, he was very close to finding the tomb of the Biblical kings.

The excavations aroused disquiet among the Jews of Jerusalem, who felt they were a desecration of Jewish graves. The Turks ordered the digs to stop, but when the Caliph’s messenger arrived in Jaffa, he saw the sarcophagi being shipped by sea to the Louvre.6 Rabbi Shmuel Salant, Jerusalem’s Chief Rabbi, asked Rabbi Lazare Isidor, Chief Rabbi of France, to demand that the French government put an end to the desecration and to rebury the bones in the nearby Tomb of Shimon Hazaddik in Jerusalem. The Tomb of the Kings site was closed.

The royal sarcophagi, looted from the Tomb of the Kings
and displayed in the Louvre in Paris (Wikimedia)

A Site Dedicated to the Science and Veneration of the Children of Israel
Rabbi Lazar Isidor convinced Bertha Pereire, a wealthy Jewish philanthropist, to purchase the mausoleum. As Ottoman law prohibited Jews from buying the land, she approached Salvatore Patrimonio, the French consul in Jerusalem, to obtain the area of the tomb for 30,000 francs.

In 1874, she gave her acquisition to the Jewish Consistoire Central Israelite de France. She wrote: “I, the undersigned, Bertha Amelie Bertrand Pereire, hereby declare that when making over the acquisition of the land on which the ‘Tomb of the Kings’ is found in Jerusalem, I have no other objective than the conservation of this ancient and respected monument… It is a relic of my ancestors that I want to preserve from any further desecration of the Tomb of the Kings.”

After her death and that of her two sons, Emile and Ernes, Henry Pereire curiously gave the Tomb of the Kings to France. He was not Bertha’s grandson but her cousin. The vice-president of the Southern Railway Company was therefore not Bertha’s heir and had no right to give away such property without first offering it to the Consistoire as its legitimate owner.  One may question the motivations (or the pressures he may have been subjected to) of Henry Pereire, son of Jacob Emile and the vice-president of the Southern Railway Company.

France also profited from an oversight by Consul Patrimonio, who had neglected to carry out the process of transferring the title deeds for the site to Berthe Pereire. In the contract signed on January 20, 1886, by Henry Pereire, one paragraph clearly states, “The French government commits that in the future, no changes will be made to the actual purpose of this monument.” However, Ottoman law was not recognized as a legal entity, and the site was directly handed over in 1886 to the French consul in Jerusalem, Charles Ledoulx, who installed a large copper sign at the site of “the Tomb of the Kings of Judea.” The Pereire brothers had put up a different sign, dedicating the shrine to “the science and the veneration of the true Children of Israel.”

The dispute ceased, and the Jews of Jerusalem took on the custom of going to the site to pray on Passover and Chanukah at the graves of the three revered Jewish figures buried there. As usual, an admission fee was charged for these visits, and written authorization from the consulate was required.

The Tomb of the Kings under a train on its way to Ramallah. A narrow-gauge rail line had been built by the Turks. (Library of Congress)
In 1997, French Consul Stanislas de Laboulaye allowed a Palestinian cultural society, Yabous, to hold a music festival there.7

Is that the way to protect a Jewish holy site from desecration – by holding a Palestinian-French concert there?!

France took possession of the mausoleum in 1886 but did not stick to the contract “that in the future, no changes will be made to the actual purpose of this monument.” In recent years, the Consul repeatedly permitted Yabous to use the site, while for the rest of the year, access was mostly forbidden apart from a few pilgrims or tourists with written permission from the consulate.

According to Palestinian sources, “all performances of the Jerusalem Festival of Arabic Music of 1997 were held at the Tombs of the Kings, a great historical site, under French jurisdiction, with a seating capacity of 800. In contrast to the first festival of Arabic music, this was not confined to artists from Palestine. They came from Tunisia, Morocco, Algeria, and also from Palestine.” The report continued, “This festival succeeded in developing burgeoning cultural links between Palestine and the rest of the Arab world.”8

The French hijacked the Jewish Heritage site. Aren’t the Jews and the Kurds the two nations that France has betrayed the most? Therefore, when it comes to the tomb of a Kurdish Jewish queen, the tension is particularly high. Time is supposed to calm the passions. The site was closed in 2010, supposedly for renovation work. It was reopened on June 27, 2019, but again with limited, reserved, and paid admission ordered online.

The president of the Israelite Consistoire Central Israelite de France questioned why a site under French sovereignty is forbidden to Jews. The will of those who acquired it should be respected, but he argued that a concert performance is inappropriate for a holy site. Haim Berkovits, (who represents the Consistoire and is in charge of the case) has inquired why Christian sites that are also considered as French territories in Jerusalem are managed by Christians, but a Jewish site such as the Tomb of the Kings can’t be managed by Jews.

Israel’s Antiquities Authorities have attempted to calm things down, saying, “Our duty is to ensure that no one desecrates this site. We ask France to open the site as soon as possible, but to introduce the limits set by Yuval Baruch, the chief archeologist in Jerusalem, who seeks to preserve the historical character of the site rather than the holy aspect. When this occurs,” he explained, “the archeological aspect is always lost.”

France is bothered that the site is in east Jerusalem, forgetting that the sharing plan accompanying UN Resolution 181 was not legally binding and was rejected by the Arabs. Talking about Palestinian Jerusalem ignores its traditional position as an international city.

The site recently reopened. After ten years of renovations, visitors must receive written authorization from the consulate and a fee.

Is the French Consulate also rewriting history? The official French announcement reopening the Tomb was translated into Arabic, but not into Hebrew. The invitation, directed at an Arab audience, stated that the “Tomb of the Sultans” will be opened. Without a doubt, this was no innocent mistake. For the general culture of French diplomats, the translation of “king” into Arabic is not “sultan,” especially as the tomb predates the nomination of the first Arab sultan by 11 centuries.10

This article originally appeared at http://jcpa.org/article/were-french-kings-buried-in-jerusalems-tomb-of-the-kings/

Notes

1. Rediscovered in 1911.
2. With the assistance of Clermont-Ganneau, translator for the French  consulate, who translated the monument in the Louvre to Mesha, a Moabite King from the 19th century BCE, which gives an account of his revolt against King Yoram (son of Achav), who ruled over Israel. Clermont-Ganneau also discovered in 1871 the Soreg inscription, which was on a balustrade from Herod’s Temple in Jerusalem, warning strangers against entering the Sanctuary enclosure. This could not be acquired by the Louvre and is today in the Istanbul Archeological Museum.
3. There are 31 graves. King Monobaz is interred with his mother and brother.
4. She gave many gifts to the Temple and dealt with a famine in Jerusalem by sending ships to Alexandria and Cyprus to provide grain and dried figs to the starving population.
5. An archeologist famous for discovering Khorsabad, on the banks of the Tigris. This was part of the Palace of Sargon II, which was believed to be among the ruins of Nineveh.
6. Where they still remain in the vaults.
7. Named after a Jebusite city situated a kilometer further south.
8. https://pij.org/articles/917/the-jerusalem-palestinian-festival-fining-the-cultural-vacuum
9. https://www.eventer.co.il/gq7v3?lang=EN_en
10. Title of Muslim leader, from the era of the Seljuk empire (11th century) given by the Caliph to those that he awarded effective power.
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ISRAEL HISTORY Empty Re: ISRAEL HISTORY

Post  Admin on Thu 19 Sep 2019, 11:35 pm

Israeli Archaelogists’ Discovery Proves Bible Was Right About Kingdom of Edom
https://unitedwithisrael.org/israeli-archaelogists-discovery-proves-bible-was-right-about-kingdom-of-edom/?utm_source=pushengage&utm_medium=pushnotification&utm_campaign=pushengage
The Israeli team also discovered that the Edomite kingdom from the Bible pioneered a “hi-tech network” of copper production, which generated massive amounts of wealth.
By United With Israel Staff
Israeli researchers recently discovered that the biblical Edomites, once considered nomadic tribesmen, were actually advanced copper producers.


According to these new revelations, the Edomites used  a “hi-tech” incredibly complex process to produce copper in the late 10th century BCE. At that time, copper was an important metal used to forge tools, weapons and decorations.


“Using technological evolution as a proxy for social processes, we were able to identify and characterize the emergence of the biblical kingdom of Edom,” said one of the researchers who led the team. “Our results prove it happened earlier than previously thought and in accordance with the biblical description.”




 
The Tel Aviv University (TAU) team that made these discoveries is headed by Prof. Erez Ben-Yosef and Prof. Tom Levy, who published their findings in Public Library of Science’s peer-reviewed PLOS ONE journal.


During the TAU study, hundreds of pieces of copper smelting byproducts, called “slag,” stemming from about 500 years’ of ancient mining activities were analyzed. Most of the samples were taken from Israel’s Timna valley, an ancient mine complex located in the south.


This area is presumed to be site of the King Solomon’s mines in Faynan, one of the biggest copper mines in the Roman Empire, which lies south of the Dead Sea on the east side of the Wadi Arabah, separating Israel from Jordan.


According to the paper, the smelting skills and efficiency methods of the copper production showed gradual technological developments from the 13th to 10th centuries BCE with a notable jump in advanced production methods in the late 10th century BCE.


This time period coincides with the emergence of biblical Edom, as noted in Genesis 36:31, which describes an early, pre-10th century BCE Edomite kingdom as follows: “These are the kings who reigned in the land of Edom before any king reigned over the Israelites.”




 
The researchers believe that the military pillage of Jerusalem, by Egyptian Pharaoh Shosheng I (the biblical “Shishak”) in 10th century BCE, brought to the region a “technological leap” in copper production know-how and trade.


“We demonstrated a sudden standardization of the slag in the second half of the 10th century BCE, from the Faynan sites in Jordan to the Timna sites in Israel, an extensive area of some 2,000 square km, which occurred just as the Egyptians entered the region,” Ben-Yosef noted in a press release. “The efficiency of the copper industry in the region was increasing. The Edomites developed precise working protocols that allowed them to produce a very large amount of copper with minimum energy.”


Ben-Yosef argues that it is a misconception that the Edomites, the Israelites’ “cousins” who descended from Esau, were only “simple” tent-dwelling nomads.


“Before they built their capital in the [Edomite] plateau, [located in Jordan near Petra and southeast of the Dead Sea], the Edomites were a complex and organized kingdom, but they were still nomadic,” said Ben-Yosef. “They dwelt in tents. They didn’t have villages or cities, but they had cemeteries and smelting sites.”


The findings show that the Edomites controlled a vast network of valuable copper mines from which products were exported to Greece and probably Damascus.




 
“These people were indeed nomadic or semi-nomadic,” said Ben-Yosef. “They didn’t have stone palaces or walled cities, but they do have something that cannot be explained as ‘Bedouin in the desert.’ They are clearly well-organized and had a great geopolitical impact.”
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Post  Admin on Tue 17 Sep 2019, 4:36 pm

WATCH: Archaeologists Discover Another ‘Link in Jewish History of Jerusalem’
This awe-inspiring find provides more evidence of the Jewish people’s presence in Jerusalem since ancient times!

A volunteer sifting through dirt excavated under Robinson’s Arch near the Western Wall found an amazing discovery proving the Jewish people’s ancient history in Jerusalem!

Watch and find out what it is!
Son of King David the 2,600 year old coin bears the hebrew word , Adenyahu Asher Habayit
which translate to Adenyahu by Appointment of the House. The highest ranking ministerial position beneath the Kings
of Judea and Israel.
Archaeologists Discover Another ‘Link in Jewish History of Jerusalem
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dgYVmKM6xI4&ab_channel=UnitedwithIsrael
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ISRAEL HISTORY Empty Re: ISRAEL HISTORY

Post  Admin on Sat 14 Sep 2019, 9:40 pm

Palaestina ex monumentis veteribus illustrata” – a detailed geographical survey of Palestine in 1696 written in Latin by Adriaan Reland published by Willem Broedelet, Utrecht, in 1714.

Residents of the REGION mainly concentrated in cities: Jerusalem, Acre, Safed, Jaffa, Tiberias and Gaza.

In most cities, the majority of residents are Christians, Jews and others, very few Muslims who were generally Bedouin, seasonal workers who came to serve as Seasonal workers in agriculture or building.

Nablus: 120 muslims, 70 Samaritans

Nazareth: 700 people – all Christians

Umm al-Fahm: 50 people -10 families, ALL Christian

Gaza: 550 people- 300 Jews,250 Christian(Jews engaged in agriculture, Christians deal with the trading and transporting the products)

Tiberias: 300 residents, all Jews.

Safed: about 200 inhabitants, all Jews

Jerusalem :5000 people,most of them (3,500) Jews,the rest – Christian (1000) Muslim (500)

PS, there was no where called "The West Bank", a it is a 1948 Jordanian invention.

Via R. S. Haybert
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Post  Admin on Fri 13 Sep 2019, 11:07 am

https://www.aish.com/ho/p/Britains-Kitchener-Camp-Saved-4000-German-Jews.html?s=mm
Britain's Kitchener Camp Saved 4,000 German Jews
Sep 9, 2019  |  by Dr. Yvette Alt Miller
Britain's Kitchener Camp Saved 4,000 German Jews
The little known story is now being told.

Life for German and Austrian Jews had become steadily more restricted ever since the Nazis were elected to power in Germany in 1933. Then on November 9, 1938, mobs ran wild in the streets of German and Austrian cities, vandalizing Jewish homes and businesses, burning synagogues and terrifying and beating up Jews.

That night, which became known as Kristallnacht, nearly 100 Jews died and hundreds of buildings were destroyed. 30,000 Jewish men were sent to concentration camps in the aftermath.

Jews scrambled to leave, but there were very few places in the world willing to take in desperate Jewish refugees. The Jewish men confined to concentration camps in 1938 were told they were free to leave - if they could find a country willing to take them in. It proved an almost impossible task.

The Jews of Britain came together to help. In 1933, with Hitler’s rise to power, a group of prominent Jews, including Anthony de Rothschild, Otto Schiff, Simon Marks (chairman of the famous department stores Marks & Spencer), and Dr. Chaim Weitzman (who later became the first President of Israel), had formed the Central British Fund for German Jewry (CBF). In the aftermath of Kristallnacht, the CBF came up with two audacious plans to rescue Jews.

The CBF brought about 10,000 Jewish children to Britain in 1938 and 1939 in a massive program that was called the “Children’s Transport”, or Kindertransport.
After the horror of Kristallnacht the British government relaxed the rules of entry of certain categories of people. Unaccompanied refugee children could enter the country, receiving a temporary travel visa, if private citizens guaranteed they would pay for each child’s education, care and eventual ticket out of the country. The CBF organized British citizens to guarantee the expenses.

Kitchener camp, 1939. Georg Benjamin, front left. Courtesy http://www.kitchenercamp.co.uk/

Some Jewish women were allowed into Britain on two year “domestic” worker visas in order to alleviate the servant shortage. (My own grandmother was among these Jewish women whose lives were saved because British households wanted a supply of cheap domestic servants.) But the 30,000 Jewish men who languished in Nazi concentration camps had no options. No country wanted them.

The CBF got to work, lobbying officials to take in these Jewish men. Britain’s government didn't want refugee camps on its soil. Housing German citizens, whatever their religion, was seen as particularly risky. But the CBF gained permission for a transit camp. A disused military camp called Kitchener camp in the southern English county of Kent was requisitioned to provide temporary shelter. Up to 5,000 men could be brought to Kitchener if the CBF pledged funds to support their upkeep.

Kitchener camp, 1939, Moshe Chaim Gruenbaum, http://www.kitchenercamp.co.uk/

Time was short and the CBF started bringing Jewish men from concentration camps to England in February 1939. The Jewish community turned to a pair of Jewish brothers, Jonas and Phineas May, who’d previously helped run the Jewish Lads Brigade, a youth group, to run the camp. With their background in running summer camps, the CBF thought Jonas and Phineas could help welcome the traumatized Jewish men.

Lothar Nelken was a judge in Germany who’d been fired from his post for being Jewish and imprisoned in Buchenwald concentration camp. He arrived in Kitchener camp on July 13, 1939. “At around 9pm we arrived in the camp,” he recorded in his diary. “We were welcomed with jubilation…The beds are surprisingly good. One sleeps as if in a cradle.”

Eventually thousands of Jewish men called Kitchener Camp home. “It was necessary to start a system for admitting 400 men a day,” Phineas wrote on June 14, 1939.

Kitchener camp, Jack Agin, Cook, 1939. Source: Clare Ungerson’s Four Thousand men,
with the kind permission of the Wiener Library

The camp bustled with life. Shabbat services, classes, a newspaper, several bands all occupied the camp’s swelling population. The camp also hosted weddings between the refugees and their fiancées who’d manage to make it out of Nazi Europe. The men hoped to bring their wives and children over to start new lives in England. As war became more likely, the mood in the camp plummeted. Jewish women and children left behind in Nazi Europe were in grave danger.

By September 3, 1939, when World War II was declared, about 4,000 Jewish men had been brought to Kitchener camp. With the world at war, the men realized their families wouldn’t be able to join them.

Many of the refugees were determined to fight Nazis. “Kitchener men” were allowed to join Britain’s Auxiliary Military Pioneer Corps, a logistics division that helped plan British military invasions. Over 800 Kitchener refugees accompanied the British Army as they fought in northern Europe in 1940. After the evacuation of British troops from Dunkirk, the Kitchener refugees were brought back to England.

After France fell to the Nazis in 1940, the public mood changed and British authorities were uncomfortable having so many German-born men on English soil. Refugees who’d enlisted to fight were allowed to remain in the army. Other refugees were moved to internment camps, mainly on the remote Isle of Man; many of the refugees were sent to Canada and Australia. Few saw their families ever again.

For 70 years, the story of Kitchener camp was very little known. It is now being told. On September 2, 2019, a plaque was unveiled in the town of Sandwich, near the camp, marking the remarkable story of 4,000 Jewish men who were rescued. Phineas and Jonah May’s children were present, as were the descendants of some of the refugees whose lives were saved at Kitchener.

One descendent who attended was Paul Secher, whose father Otto arrived in the camp in May 1939. “My father didn’t talk about it very much,” Secher said. “I sensed it was a painful subject for him. He managed to escape (Germany) but his parents and a sister didn’t. The burden must have been immense.”
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ISRAEL HISTORY Empty Archaeologists Find Artifacts From Babylonian Conquest of Jerusalem Chronicled in Bible

Post  Admin on Wed 28 Aug 2019, 5:41 pm

ISRAEL HISTORY Babylo11
ISRAEL HISTORY Tower_11

Archaeologists Find Artifacts From Babylonian Conquest of Jerusalem Chronicled in Bible
By Heather Clark on August 21, 20192 Comments
https://christiannews.net/2019/08/21/archaeologists-find-artifacts-from-babylonian-conquest-of-jerusalem-chronicled-in-bible/
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Photo Credit: UNC Charlotte
JERUSALEM — Archaeologists conducting a dig in Israel have uncovered artifacts and evidence confirming the Babylonian conquest of Jerusalem as chronicled in the Old Testament of the Bible.

“It is very exciting to be able to excavate the material signature of any given historical event, and even more so regarding an important historical event such as the Babylonian siege of Jerusalem,” Rafi Lewis of Ashkelon Academic College, one of the project leaders, said in a statement.

Lewis and his team, which included professors from the University of North Carolina-Charlotte (UNC), were conducting an excavation on a hill known as Mount Zion when they discovered layers of ash, along with shards of household pottery, lamps, an earring the shape of a cluster of grapes and iron arrowheads characteristic of those used by the Babylonians dating to about 500 B.C.

“The team believes that the newly-found deposit can be dated to the specific event of the conquest because of the unique mix of artifacts and materials found: pottery and lamps, side-by-side with evidence of the Babylonian siege represented by burnt wood and ashes, and a number of Scythian-type bronze and iron arrowheads which are typical of that period,” UNC explained in a post on its website.

“We know where the ancient fortification line ran, so we know we are within the city,” also outlined UNC Professor of History Shimon Gibson. “We know that this is not some dumping area, but the southwestern neighborhood of the Iron Age city. During the 8th century BC the urban area extended from the ‘City of David’ area to the southeast and as far as the Western Hill where we are digging.”

He also noted that while the ashen layer does not signify conquest in and of itself, put together with the other elements and the time period to which they date, everything adds up to point to the siege of Jerusalem by the Babylonians at approximately 587 B.C.

“[T]he combination of an ashy layer full of artifacts, mixed with arrowheads, and a very special ornament indicates some kind of devastation and destruction. Nobody abandons golden jewelry and nobody has arrowheads in their domestic refuse,” Gibson said.

Connect with Christian News
“The arrowheads are known as ‘Scythian arrowheads’ and  … are known to be used by the Babylonian warriors. Together, this evidence points to the historical conquest of the city by Babylon because the only major destruction we have in Jerusalem for this period is the conquest of 587/586 B.C.”

The team said that there appears to be the remains of a building buried under deeper layers, but it has yet to be uncovered.

2 Kings 25 chronicles the destruction of Jerusalem by Babylon under the reign of King Nebuchadnezzar. King Zedekiah, who the Bible says “did evil in the sight of the Lord,” was taken captive in brass fetters by Babylon during the siege and his eyes were blinded.

“And it came to pass in the ninth year of his reign, in the tenth month, in the tenth day of the month, that Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon came — he, and all his host, against Jerusalem, and pitched against it; and they built forts against it round about,” the chapter states.

“And the city was broken up, and all the men of war fled by night by the way of the gate between two walls, which is by the king’s garden … And in the fifth month, on the seventh day of the month, which is the nineteenth year of king Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon, came Nebuzaradan, captain of the guard, a servant of the king of Babylon, unto Jerusalem. And he burnt the house of the Lord, and the king’s house, and all the houses of Jerusalem, and every great man’s house burnt he with fire.”


Windle and Lanser
Christian News Network reached out to the Pennsylvania-based Associates for Biblical Research (ABR) for their thoughts on the find.

“The recent discovery of a destruction layer at the Mount Zion Archaeological Project appears to affirm the biblical description of the fall of Jerusalem to King Nebuchadnezzar described in 2 Kings 25,” Bryan Windle, staff researcher and pastor at Island Bible Chapel in Ontario, Canada, stated.

He said that the artifacts found are those “one might expect to find in a home that had been destroyed in the way the Bible describes,” and that “[g]iven that the Bible has been shown time and again to be a historically reliable document, we would not be surprised to find more archaeological evidence unearthed of the Babylonian destruction of Jerusalem in the 6th century B.C.”

Director Scott Lanser remarked that the discovery once again demonstrates the reliability of the Scriptures.

“We live in a skeptical age where the historical narratives of the Bible are summarily dismissed as unreliable, or avoided, due to fears that the authors of the Bible were contaminated with religious bias,” he lamented. “Strangely, what the skeptics overlook is that God commanded absolute honesty in every form of communication, and especially in reporting His sovereignty over historical events.”

“When a discovery of this magnitude is made — evidence for the Babylonian conquest of Jerusalem in 587/586 B.C. — reports always end up focusing on the Bible,” Lanser noted, “like a ‘Wow, it looks like archaeology actually supports what we thought were myths in the Bible’ kind of attitude.”

“In reality, we need to return to the perspective that God can always be trusted to tell us the truth in the Bible,” he exhorted. “The evidence in this case is that the Babylonians attacked and burned Jerusalem, just as the Bible reports in 2 Kings 25:1-9. Once again, the Bible is exonerated from the claims of radical skepticism. Once again, we are reminded to trust every word that God has given to His people in the Scriptures.”

The Ancient City of Babylon: Digging for Truth-Episode 47
https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=4&v=fGlUM9cf4vg&ab_channel=BibleArchaeology

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ISRAEL HISTORY Empty Re: ISRAEL HISTORY

Post  Admin on Sat 24 Aug 2019, 12:30 pm

Archaeologists Uncover Babylonian Destruction of Jerusalem Just How Bible Describes It
Aug 23, 2019 04:43 pm
Archaeologists Uncover Babylonian Destruction of Jerusalem Just How Bible Describes It
(CBN) – Academics are saying the Bible is trustworthy after discovering evidence of the 6th century Babylonian siege of Jerusalem as it is described in 2 Kings, Chapter 25. Archaeologists from the University of North Carolina at Charlotte, excavating on Mount Zion in Jerusalem, say they have found physical evidence of the Babylonian attack, including burnt material, arrowheads, carbonized wood, bronze, iron, jewelry, and broken pottery. Dr. Shimon Gibson, co-director of the university’s Mount Zion archaeological

project, told CBN News the discoveries were “unexpected.” The Bible describes King Nebuchadnezzar’s forces burning “every great house” down, including the house of the Lord – Solomon’s Temple.

Continue reading Archaeologists Uncover Babylonian Destruction of Jerusalem Just How Bible Describes It at End Time Headlines.
https://endtimeheadlines.org/2019/08/archaeologists-uncover-babylonian-destruction-of-jerusalem-just-how-bible-describes-it/


https://www1.cbn.com/cbnnews/israel/2019/august/archaeologists-uncover-babylonian-destruction-of-jerusalem-just-how-bible-describes-it
Archaeologists Uncover Babylonian Destruction of Jerusalem Just How Bible Describes It
08-23-2019
Emily Jones
Courtesy: Dr. Shimon Gibson
JERUSALEM, Israel - Academics are saying the Bible is trustworthy after discovering evidence of the 6th century Babylonian siege of Jerusalem as it is described in 2 Kings, Chapter 25.

Archaeologists from the University of North Carolina at Charlotte, excavating on Mount Zion in Jerusalem, say they have found physical evidence of the Babylonian attack, including burnt material, arrowheads, carbonized wood, bronze, iron, jewelry, and broken pottery.
Related
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Courtesy: Zachery Wong
Archaeologists Find Church of The Apostles Built Over Home of Jesus' Disciples
Dr. Shimon Gibson, co-director of the university's Mount Zion archaeological project, told CBN News the discoveries were "unexpected."

The Bible describes King Nebuchadnezzar's forces burning "every great house" down, including the house of the Lord – Solomon's Temple. The soldiers also took bronze pillars and vessels from the Temple and carried them back to Babylon while the children of Israel were thrown into exile.
"What we're finding are the results of that destruction," Gibson said, adding that Nebuchadnezzar was known as the "Destroyer of Nations" at the time.
The researchers also found a particularly rare piece of jewelry with unclear origins.
"It might have been an earring. It might have been a tassel, some kind of ornament. It's unclear at this point in time. It consists of a golden bell out of which extends this bunch of grapes made out of silver," Gibson said.
While he cannot say conclusively that the archaeologists stumbled upon the remnants of the Babylonian attack, Gibson said it "lines up very well" with the Bible.
In fact, Gibson believes the discoveries prove the Bible to be a reliable and historically accurate document.
"There have been over the past several decades a lot of discussion as to the veracity of the biblical account. Some would like to see it more as mythically based, maybe having a basis in history, but still largely a document that is not really to be relied upon," he explained.
"Our excavations prove that to not be the case."
Gibson said the archaeologists will return to Jerusalem next summer to excavate the site in its entirety.
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ISRAEL HISTORY Empty 90 Years Ago: The Hebron Massacre of 1929

Post  Admin on Fri 23 Aug 2019, 11:26 am

90 Years Ago: The Hebron Massacre of 1929
BY EMANUEL MILLER  AUGUST 23, 2019
In the eyes of many, the Hebron massacre of 1929 is the defining event of the 1929 Arab riots in Palestine.

For centuries, the small Jewish community of Hebron coexisted alongside a much larger Muslim community. Although Jews were never accorded full equality and often faced rampant discrimination and even extreme violence, at times relations were cordial.

All that changed exactly ninety years ago, as violent Arab riots against Jewish immigration swept through Palestine, which was then administered by the British.

Triggered by a baseless rumor that Jews were planning to march to the Temple Mount in Jerusalem and claim ownership of their holiest place, thousands of Arab villagers streamed into Jerusalem to pray at the Al-Aqsa Mosque on the Temple Mount, many armed with sticks and knives. The crowds worked themselves into a frenzy, with some 20-30 gunshots reported fired in the vicinity of the Temple Mount by rabble-rousers. A British report on the events describes the excited Arab crowds as intent on mischief and possibly murder. Fed by rumors that two Arabs had been killed by Jews elsewhere in Jerusalem, Arabs in the Old City went on the rampage, attacking and murdering Jews.

The rumors, and the violence  they prompted, spread swiftly across the land – most notably to Hebron, where a massacre unfolded.

The Massacre Begins
As Jews prepared to marked Shabbat, the holy day of rest, reports of the violence in Jerusalem made their way to their Arab neighbors.

The first to be targeted were the Ashkenazi Jews, who lived separately from both the Sephardi Jewish community and from the Arab population. Although their community had been established in the town for at least a century, their isolation fed the Arab views that these “Zionist immigrants” were suspicious and thus hated.

Despite the suspicion borne towards the Ashkenazi Jews, some recall being on good terms with the Arab neighbors. So peaceful was the city that only one British policeman guarded the entire city.

He oversaw a small force of 18 mounted police, together with 15 constables on patrol. All but one of whom were Arabs. Many were infirm and elderly.

Arab youths took to hurling rocks at the Ashkenazi yeshiva students passing by. That afternoon, a Jewish student named Shmuel Rosenholtz went to learn at the yeshiva. Around 4pm, Arab rioters forced their way in to the building. The caretaker managed to hide in a well, but Rosenholtz wasn’t so lucky. Absorbed in study, he didn’t see his attackers till too late.

The killing frenzy had started.

Rabbi Slonim, who was sheltering many Jews in his home, was approached by the rioters. They offered him a deal. If he agreed to hand over all the Ashkenazi yeshiva students to the Arabs, the rioters would spare the lives of the Sephardi community.

Such an act would have meant certain death for dozens of Jews. The Rabbi refused, saying “we are all one people”. In retaliation, he, his wife and 4-year-old son were promptly shot dead.

The following hours were hell for Hebron’s Jewish community, as the attacks turned into a massacre of the helpless Jewish community.

The following day, 24 August, saw Arab mobs gather and attack the Jewish quarter. The resulting carnage became known as the Hebron Massacre of 1929.

By 8am on Saturday morning, Arabs began to gather around the Jewish community. Armed with clubs, knives and axes, the mobs prepared to attack. Women and children threw stones while men ransacked Jewish houses and destroyed Jewish property.

With only a single police officer in all of Hebron, the Arabs were able to enter Jewish courtyards with literally no opposition.

Jews of all ages were attacked at random – men, women and children alike were the targets of the fury of the Arab mob. Women were raped, children were bludgeoned to death, and men stabbed and mutilated.

The Beit Romano police station turned into a shelter for the Jews on the morning of Saturday, August 24. It also became a synagogue when the Orthodox Jews gathered there said their morning prayers. As they finished praying, they began to hear noises outside the building. Thousands of Arabs descended from Har Hebron, shouting “Kill the Jews!” in Arabic. They even tried to break down the doors of the station.

The small police force was overrun and utterly incapable of stemming the mob. Some Arab policemen even joined in the killings.

The Beit Hadassah Jewish hospital, operated by the Hadassah Medical Organization, which provided equal treatment for Arabs and Jews alike, wasn’t spared. The rioters destroyed the pharmacy, and torched a synagogue on the top floor, destroying the Torah scrolls inside. The pharmacist there, a crippled man who had served both Jews and Arabs for four decades, was forced to watch as his daughter was raped and then murdered. He was then killed himself.

Photographs from the time show a girl struck on the head by a sword with her brain spilling out, a woman with bandaged hands, people with their eyes gouged out, a man whose hand had been savagely amputated, and other grisly sights.

It’s important to note that some Arabs did try to help Jews as the Hebron massacre unfolded. Nineteen Arab families saved dozens, if not hundreds, of Hebron’s Jews. Zmira Mani wrote about an Arab named Abu Id Zaitoun who brought his brother and son to rescue her family. The Arab family protected the Manis with their swords, hid them in a cellar along with other Jews they had saved, and eventually found a policeman to escort them safely to the police station at Beit Romano.

The Aftermath of the Hebron Massacre
In all, 67 Jews were murdered, and dozens injured.

Following the attacks, the British High Commissioner Sir John Chancellor visited Hebron. He later wrote to his son, “The horror of it is beyond words. In one house I visited not less than twenty-five Jews men and women were murdered in cold blood.” Sir Walter Shaw concluded in The Palestine Disturbances report that “unspeakable atrocities have occurred in Hebron.”

With their homes laid to waste and their synagogues destroyed, the few hundred Jewish survivors were relocated to Jerusalem.  The aftermath left Hebron barren of Jews for the first time in hundreds of years.

In 1948, Israel gained its independence from Britian, but Hebron was captured by King Abdullah’s Arab Legion during the War of Independence and ultimately annexed to Jordan. Jews only returned to the city in 1968, a year after Israel liberated Hebron from Jordanian control in the Six-Day War.
Emanuel Miller
Emanuel Miller is a Jerusalem-based writer who has previously worked for the Jerusalem Post and the Times of Israel, and helped establish the English media department of My Truth, an organization that documents the experiences of Israeli soldiers while facing an immoral, cynical enemy. He regularly speaks about Israel, media bias, and Israel's geopolitical complexities to audiences including Birthright groups, student leaders visiting Israel, and for those seeking to get a more nuanced understanding of Israel.
https://honestreporting.com/90-years-ago-the-hebron-massacre-of-1929/?utm_source=pushengage&utm_medium=push_notification&utm_campaign=pushengage
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Post  Admin on Wed 14 Aug 2019, 7:10 pm

https://www.faithwire.com/2019/08/13/archaeologists-in-jerusalem-discover-compelling-evidence-of-historic-biblical-conquest/?fbclid=IwAR3_j1TWvdJkfrqy5GMZBce-Li8JLAHzQwMYsnQhKrau6FUGg42iX8am8Vg
Archaeologists in Jerusalem Discover Compelling Evidence of Historic Biblical Conquest
Photo by Robert Bye on Unsplash
By Will Maule
Author
16 hours ago
Archaeologists excavating Mount Zion in Jerusalem have discovered evidence of the Babylonian conquest of the city, as accounted for in the Bible.
Researchers from the University of North Carolina retrieved ash deposits, arrowheads and broken pieces of pots and lamps at the site. But that wasn’t the most important item — they also uncovered an item of jewelry which was popular among the “elites.” This tiny detail, they say, confirms the Biblical narrative of Jerusalem’s wealth prior to the conquest in 587-586 BC.

The jewelry is a “clear indication of the wealth of the inhabitants of the city at the time of the siege,” Shimon Gibson, co-director of the university’s Mount Zion archaeological project, told CNN.

The Prophet Jeremiah prophesied about the impending attack:

“The Lord says, “People of Benjamin, run for safety!
    Run away from Jerusalem!
Blow trumpets in the city of Tekoa!
    Warn everyone in Beth Hakkerem!
Horrible trouble is coming from the north.
    The Babylonians will destroy everything with awful power.” — Jeremiah 6:1.

The attack was recorded later, in Jeremiah 52, as well as 2 Kings. The assault was led by Babylonia King, Nebuchadnezzar.

“On the tenth day of the tenth month of the ninth year of Zedekiah’s reign, King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon attacked Jerusalem with his entire army,” reads 2 Kings 25:1

For archaeologists, an ashen layer can mean a number of different things,” Gibson said in a statement, expanding on the team’s discovery.

“It could be ashy deposits removed from ovens; or it could be localized burning of garbage. However, in this case, the combination of an ashy layer full of artifacts, mixed with arrowheads, and a very special ornament indicates some kind of devastation and destruction. Nobody abandons golden jewelry and nobody has arrowheads in their domestic refuse.”

After Announcing He’s ‘Losing’ His Faith, Hillsong Worship Leader Posts List of Christian Apologists

The arrowheads, in particular, are also a compelling piece of evidence to suggest that the Babylonians completed their conquest as documented in the Bible.

The arrowheads were “fairly commonplace” in battle sites from the 7th and 6th centuries BCE, and were often used by Babylonian warriors, according to Gibson.

“This evidence points to the historical conquest of the city by Babylon because the only major destruction we have in Jerusalem for this period is the conquest of 587/586 BCE,” he added, noting that the broken pieces of pottery that were discovered at the site was a “jumble that you would expect to find in a ruined household following a raid or battle.”

“It is very exciting to be able to excavate the material signature of any given historical event, and even more so regarding an important historical event such as the Babylonian siege of Jerusalem,” added Rafi Lewis, a co-director on the research team.

Incredible!
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Post  Admin on Wed 14 Aug 2019, 4:57 pm

https://www.faithwire.com/2019/08/13/archaeologists-in-jerusalem-discover-compelling-evidence-of-historic-biblical-conquest/?fbclid=IwAR3_j1TWvdJkfrqy5GMZBce-Li8JLAHzQwMYsnQhKrau6FUGg42iX8am8Vg
Archaeologists in Jerusalem Discover Compelling Evidence of Historic Biblical Conquest
Photo by Robert Bye on Unsplash
By Will Maule
Author
16 hours ago
Archaeologists excavating Mount Zion in Jerusalem have discovered evidence of the Babylonian conquest of the city, as accounted for in the Bible.
Researchers from the University of North Carolina retrieved ash deposits, arrowheads and broken pieces of pots and lamps at the site. But that wasn’t the most important item — they also uncovered an item of jewelry which was popular among the “elites.” This tiny detail, they say, confirms the Biblical narrative of Jerusalem’s wealth prior to the conquest in 587-586 BC.

The jewelry is a “clear indication of the wealth of the inhabitants of the city at the time of the siege,” Shimon Gibson, co-director of the university’s Mount Zion archaeological project, told CNN.

The Prophet Jeremiah prophesied about the impending attack:

“The Lord says, “People of Benjamin, run for safety!
    Run away from Jerusalem!
Blow trumpets in the city of Tekoa!
    Warn everyone in Beth Hakkerem!
Horrible trouble is coming from the north.
    The Babylonians will destroy everything with awful power.” — Jeremiah 6:1.

The attack was recorded later, in Jeremiah 52, as well as 2 Kings. The assault was led by Babylonia King, Nebuchadnezzar.

“On the tenth day of the tenth month of the ninth year of Zedekiah’s reign, King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon attacked Jerusalem with his entire army,” reads 2 Kings 25:1

For archaeologists, an ashen layer can mean a number of different things,” Gibson said in a statement, expanding on the team’s discovery.

“It could be ashy deposits removed from ovens; or it could be localized burning of garbage. However, in this case, the combination of an ashy layer full of artifacts, mixed with arrowheads, and a very special ornament indicates some kind of devastation and destruction. Nobody abandons golden jewelry and nobody has arrowheads in their domestic refuse.”

After Announcing He’s ‘Losing’ His Faith, Hillsong Worship Leader Posts List of Christian Apologists

The arrowheads, in particular, are also a compelling piece of evidence to suggest that the Babylonians completed their conquest as documented in the Bible.

The arrowheads were “fairly commonplace” in battle sites from the 7th and 6th centuries BCE, and were often used by Babylonian warriors, according to Gibson.

“This evidence points to the historical conquest of the city by Babylon because the only major destruction we have in Jerusalem for this period is the conquest of 587/586 BCE,” he added, noting that the broken pieces of pottery that were discovered at the site was a “jumble that you would expect to find in a ruined household following a raid or battle.”

“It is very exciting to be able to excavate the material signature of any given historical event, and even more so regarding an important historical event such as the Babylonian siege of Jerusalem,” added Rafi Lewis, a co-director on the research team.

Incredible!
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Post  Admin on Wed 07 Aug 2019, 10:40 am

Jewish Roots: Building the Land of Israel
BY DOV LIPMAN  AUGUST 7, 2019
Third Aliyah pioneers, 1921
 https://honestreporting.com/jewish-roots-building-the-land-of-israel/?utm_source=pushengage&utm_medium=push_notification&utm_campaign=pushengage
The Land of Israel, known as Palestine at the time, was a wasteland in the late 19th century.  Mark Twain visited the region in 1867 and wrote in his travel book The Innocents Abroad:

Of all the lands there are for dismal scenery, I think Palestine must be the prince. The hills are barren, they are dull of color, they are unpicturesque in shape. The valleys are unsightly deserts fringed with a feeble vegetation that has an expression about it of being sorrowful and despondent.… It is a hopeless, dreary, heart-broken land.

Small shreds and patches of it must be very beautiful in the full flush of spring, however, and all the more beautiful by contrast with the far-reaching desolation that surrounds them on every side.…

Palestine sits in sackcloth and ashes. Over it broods the spell of a curse that has withered its fields and fettered its energies.… Renowned Jerusalem itself, the stateliest name in history, has lost its ancient grandeur, and is become a pauper village…the wonderful temple, which was the pride and the glory of Israel, is gone.… The noted Sea of Galilee…was long ago deserted by the devotees of war and commerce, and its borders are a silent wilderness.…Palestine is desolate and unlovely.

Just 100 years later, the Land of Israel was filled with lush forests with trees and flowers growing throughout the country, surrounding heavily populated cities connected by congested highways.

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When and how did this change transpire?
It’s important to emphasize that there was a continued presence of Jews in Palestine from the time of the destruction of the Temple in 70 CE and throughout the ensuing 2,000 years. The first major emigration of Jews to their homeland took place in the wake of the 1492 Spanish Inquisition, in which Jews were forced to either convert to Christianity or be expelled from Spain.  Then in the late 18th century and early 19th century, very religious Eastern European Jews returned to the Land of Israel, not to build a state but to be the spiritual emissaries in the Holy Land for Jews throughout the world.

Despite the Arab population’s persecution of the Jews, in adherence to the Muslim institution of “dhimmitude,” referring to infidels who are not Muslim, who according to their faith must remain inferior to the Muslims, Jews continued to emigrate to Palestine and by 1840 they numbered 17,000 in Jerusalem – a majority of the city’s population.


Related reading: The Jewish Connection to the Land of Israel

Return to Zion
Then, in the mid-1800s, the Jewish people began the process of truly rebuilding their desolate homeland and creating a structured society.  In 1855, Sir Moses Montefiore purchased land for Jewish homes west of Jerusalem’s Old City walls. Today they are the neighborhoods of Mishkenot Shaananim and Yemin Moshe, marked by the legendary Montefiore windmill.  In 1854, Jerusalem’s Jewish community opened two hospitals – Bikur Cholim Hospital and Misgav Ladach Hospital. By 1868,  Jerusalem had 21 synagogues.

A reawakening of interest in emigrating to Palestine emerged among Eastern European Jews in the late 1800s and between 1881 and 1903, tens of thousands made their way to Palestine in what became known as “the First Aliyah.”

These people, along with the help of the Jews previously living there and with the financial assistance of Baron Edmond de Rothschild, began farming the land and building agricultural settlements. These included Gadera, Rishon LeZion, Zichron Yaakov, Rosh Pina, Metulla,  Hadera, Rehovot, Ness Ziona, and Petah Tikva, which began as farming settlements, eventually becoming neighborhoods of Tel Aviv.


Rishon LeZion in the 1890s.
It is critical to emphasize that all this took place before there was an entity called Political Zionism.

Once Political Zionism and the official effort to establish a state began at the very end of the 19th century, the drive to physically regrow this desolate wasteland and build a structured society in this land, which had nothing of the sort for thousands of years, continued with full steam.

The Second Aliyah, from the beginning of the 20th century until World War I, was mostly made up of Jews who saw labor as the highest of ideals, and led to the emigration of another 35,000 Jews and the establishment of agricultural communes called “Kibbutzim.” These Jews drained swamps, cleared rocks, plowed barren land, and planted trees. In 1908, Jews moved to sand dunes north of Jaffa, drew lots for land, and established Tel Aviv from nothing.  This wave of immigrants worked to bring back the use of the Hebrew language which had been dormant for 2,000 years and created Hashomer, the Jewish population’s first official defense organization to protect the Jewish communities from Arab attackers.

TelAviv-Founding
Tel Aviv was founded on land purchased from Bedouins, north of the existing city of Jaffa. This photograph is of 1909 auction of the first lots.
Re-flourishing of the land
The re-flourishing and rebuilding of the land was aided by world Jewry who donated to the cause of planting trees in Israel and other projects through organizations like the Jewish National Fund which was established in 1901.

During this period, the Jewish population established its first official bank, Bank Leumi (National Bank). Its official name was the Anglo Palestine Company – a subsidiary of the Jewish Colonial Trust which was formed in London to promote the industry, construction, agriculture, and infrastructure for the Jewish people in Palestine.

Agriculture. Construction. Defense. Banking.

All the necessary elements needed to form a state were being put into practice by the Jewish people in Palestine decades before the Israeli state would become an official reality.  These refugees from persecution all around the world and Jews who had already been in Israel for centuries were motivated by the spirit of the prophets, including Amos who declared (Chapter 9:13-15) thousands of years prior that:

Behold, the days are coming, says the Lord… And I will turn the captivity of My people Israel, and they shall build the desolate cities, and inhabit them; and they shall plant vineyards, and drink their wine; they shall also make gardens, and eat their fruits. And I will plant them upon their land, and they shall no more be uprooted out of their land which I have given them, says the Lord your God.

In short, the Jewish people did not wait for the international community to grant them a state in the Land of Israel, their biblical and ancestral homeland. They defied all odds and through blood, sweat and tears, revived this 2,000-year-old wasteland and marshland into a flourishing landscape and structured society.

See the Israel
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Post  Admin on Thu 25 Jul 2019, 9:37 am

Goliath’s True Hometown Found? Lost 3,000-year-old Philistine City Emerges Beneath Gath
Massive fortifications hidden beneath previously excavated settlement in southern Israel may have inspired biblical traditions about Goliath and other hulks


By Ariel David Jul 24, 2019   Zen  Subscribe now
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Ancient DNA solves age-old mystery of Philistine origin
Israeli archaeologists resurrect 5,000-year-old yeast and make beer from it
Modern humans reached Europe 150,000 years before we thought, oldest Homo sapiens skull found out of Africa shows
Archaeologists excavating the ancient Philistine city of Gath have uncovered massive 3,000-year-old fortifications of a size unprecedented for their time and place. The discovery could help explain why the...


https://www.haaretz.com/archaeology/.premium.MAGAZINE-goliath-s-true-hometown-found-lost-3-000-year-old-philistine-city-of-gath-emerges-i-1.7569569
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Post  Admin on Mon 22 Jul 2019, 8:51 am

The Kibbutz Movement: Past, Present, and Future
BY MARGO DICKSTEIN  JULY 22, 2019
https://honestreporting.com/the-kibbutz-movement-past-present-and-future/?utm_source=pushengage&utm_medium=push_notification&utm_campaign=pushengage
The kibbutz movement is one of the pillars of the State of Israel. It is a uniquely Israeli institution, beloved by many. But what are the origins of the kibbutz, and does it have a future in the modern State of Israel?

The Kibbutz Movement Origins
Jews arriving in Ottoman Palestine from Eastern Europe at the turn of the century were influenced by the revolutionary socialist ideals from their home countries. Rejecting earlier Jewish settlements that utilized Arab labor, they sought a “conquest of Labor,” believing that only Jewish labor would lead to the land being redeemed and a Jewish state being established.

While these early pioneers sought to work the land themselves, they could not compete with experienced Arab laborers who would work for less pay. In order to meet the needs of the new pioneers, the Zionist Settlement Office set up agricultural schools.

A group from the school was sent to work on land near the Sea of Galilee then called Um Juni. They left after less than one year. A new group of pioneers who were successful at farming on land near Hadera was sent to Um Juni with the hopes of similar success. They faced many challenges, including crumbling infrastructure left by the past group, as well as attacks from local Arabs.

This group of pioneers were the first to stay in one place and not move to another settlement, like other socialist Jews were doing at the time. They decided to rename the settlement Degania, after the word dagan, Hebrew for the cereals they were growing, and after degania, the cornflowers that grew in the area. Kibbutz Degania became the first kibbutz in Israel in 1910 .

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Life in Degania, and other early kibbutzim in general, was difficult. The land was difficult to work with and uncultivated, as well as most new immigrants coming from Europe having little to no farming experience. Arabs living near new Jewish settlements also largely resented their presence, and plundering was common. Because of this, early Jewish settlers created the Hashomer defense force.

Kibbutzim served as centers for absorption of new immigrants and provided defense fighters to the Haganah during Mandate Palestine.

Kibbutz Degania
A member of Kibbutz Degania-B plowing a field in 1945
Changes
Initially, kibbutzim were almost entirely agricultural, and entirely socialist. Families lived in modest, similar housing, and all meals were eaten communally in the dining hall. In some kibbutzim, children slept in a children’s house at night rather than with their parents. All income earned went into the kibbutz, and it would then be split communally and equally. There was no link between individual contribution to the community and income.

In the 1960s, only four percent of Israelis lived on kibbutzim, yet members of the kibbutz movement made up 15% of the Knesset.

But in the 1980s, Israel faced an economic crisis, and the kibbutzim were especially hurt. Due to mounting debts, inflation, and people leaving for the for cities, the kibbutz movement decided that maintaining a fully socialist framework would be impossible. Most moved to partially privatize.

By 2015, only two members of the Knesset were members of a kibbutz. The weakening of the political power of kibbutzim correlated with a weakening of the Labor Zionism movement as a whole.

kibbutz
Cows on an Israeli kibbutz
The Kibbutz Today
Today’s kibbutzim follow one of three economic models:

The Communal Kibbutz: Division of income is communal and equal, not depending on one’s individual contribution to the community;
The Integrated Kibbutz:  A member’s individual income is based on an initial, equal sum given to each kibbutz member, an additional sum based on how long they have lived on the kibbutz, and an additional sum based on salary/contributions to the kibbutz;
The Renewed Kibbutz:  Division of income is differential. The more one earns, the more one receives. However, a certain percentage is deducted from each kibbutz member’s salary to cover community expenses and supplement the income of members whose income falls below the minimum salary set by the kibbutz.
The vast majority of kibbutzim today, almost 190, chose to become “renewed kibbutzim,” seeing themselves as “reformers,” adapting the kibbutz method to the economic and social changes of the 21st century. Around 60 kibbutzim operate on the communal method while 20 are integrated.

All kibbutzim function as democracies, with members voting to formulate policy, elect officers, authorize the kibbutz budget, and approve new members. Kibbutz members also elect members to committees, who make decisions affecting things such as housing, finance, production, planning, health, and culture.

Kibbutzim production makes up 5.2% of Israel’s gross national product, and 9.2% of Israel’s industrial production. While kibbutzim are less powerful agriculture producers than they used to be, they still leave a huge impact on the state, with 34% of all of Israel’s agriculture coming from kibbutzim. Kibbutzim own 10% of the land within the state.

Related reading: The Roots of Zionism

The Kibbutz Movement’s Future
Kibbutzim today have expanded far beyond the small, socialist communes they once were. Many industries that operate on kibbutzim are traded on the Tel Aviv and foreign stock exchanges.

Israelis are also taking these ideals to 100 so-called “urban kibbutzim” where an estimated 2,000 Israelis live. The urban kibbutz movement has sprouted abroad as well, especially in the US, Australia and Germany.

Many believe that the kibbutz movement is having a revival, with kibbutzim expanding and people moving from cities to the periphery to experience the rural kibbutz lifestyle. Most argue that this expansion is only possible due to the evolution of the kibbutzim.

It is also clear that this expansion is not aided by a political expansion of the labor movement. It is something deeper – something calling people to abandon the ease of city life and come to live on kibbutzim, taking the 100 year-old movement into the 21st century.

In short, the kibbutz is here to stay in the modern State of Israel.
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Post  Admin on Sun 21 Jul 2019, 11:40 am

https://www.timesofisrael.com/ancient-galilee-church-unearthed-said-to-be-home-to-apostles-peter-and-andrew/
Ancient Galilee church unearthed, said to be home to apostles Peter and Andrew
Israeli archaeologist says dig at El-Araj, near Sea of Galilee, confirms it as the site of fishing village Bethsaida
By STEPHEN WEIZMAN
19 July 2019, 4:21 pm
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In this file photo taken on August 6, 2017, a general view of an archaeological excavation site, believed to be the location of a biblical village that was home to Saint Peter, near the Sea of Galilee in northern Israel. (Menahem Kahana/AFP)
In this file photo taken on August 6, 2017, a general view of an archaeological excavation site, believed to be the location of a biblical village that was home to Saint Peter, near the Sea of Galilee in northern Israel. (Menahem Kahana/AFP)
AFP — Excavations in Israel’s Galilee have uncovered remains of an ancient church said to mark the home of the apostles Peter and Andrew, the dig’s archaeological director said Friday.

Mordechai Aviam of Kinneret Academic College, on the shore of the Sea of Galilee in northern Israel, said this season’s dig at nearby El-Araj confirmed it as the site of Bethsaida, a fishing village where Peter and his brother Andrew were born according to the Gospel of John.

The Byzantine church was found near remnants of a Roman-era settlement, matching the location of Bethsaida as described by the first century AD Roman historian Flavius Josephus, Aviam said.

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The newly discovered church, he added, fitted the account of Willibald, the Bavarian bishop of Eichstaett who visited the area around 725 AD and reported that a church at Bethsaida had been built on the site of Peter and Andrew’s home.

According to Willibald, Aviam says, Bethsaida lay between the biblical sites of Capernaum and Kursi.

“We excavated only one third of the church, a bit less, but we have a church and that’s for sure,” Aviam told AFP.


Co-directors of the Galilee early church excavations at their recent dig site, historian Jacob Ashkenazi and archaeologist Mordechai Aviam from the Kinneret Institute for Galilean Archaeology at the Kinneret Academic College (courtesy Mordechai Aviam)
“The plan is of a church, the dates are Byzantine, the mosaic floors are typical… chancel screens, everything that is typical of a church.”

“Between Capernaum and Kursi there is only one place where a church is described by the visitor in the eighth century and we discovered it, so this is the one,” he said.

Christians recognize Saint Peter, originally a fisherman, as one of the first followers of Jesus and the leader of the early Church following the ascension.

The Catholic Church also venerates him as its first pope.

El-Araj, known as Beit Habeck in Hebrew, is not the only candidate for the site of Bethsaida.

About two kilometers (more than a mile) away at e-Tell, digging has been going on since 1987 and according to the National Geographic website has unearthed major ninth-century BC fortifications and “Roman-period houses with fishing equipment, including iron anchors and fishing hooks, and the remains of what may be a Roman temple.”

Aviam is convinced that he and his international team, with professor R. Steven Notley of New York City’s Nyack College as academic director, are digging in the right spot.

“We have a Roman village, in the village we have pottery, coins, also stone vessels which are typical of first century Jewish life, so now we strengthen our suggestion and identification that El-Araj is a much better candidate for Bethsaida than e-Tell,” he said.

“It has been excavated for the past 32 years. We started digging two years ago because we thought it’s the better one and now we have the proofs.”

Notley, interviewed in Israeli daily Haaretz, is a little more cautious, saying the clincher will be if complete excavation of the El-Araj church reveals an inscription.

“It would be normal to find an inscription in a church of the Byzantine period, describing in whose memory it was built, for instance,” he told the paper.
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Post  Admin on Thu 18 Jul 2019, 9:58 pm

https://www.jewishpress.com/news/israel/jerusalem/archaeologists-find-fabled-crusader-moat-outside-jerusalems-old-city-walls-part-ii/2019/07/16/?fbclid=IwAR3ynwLtX6tgRkSN1GhKN2jrakMbjQ3UnGdU1IVaBwKSkb-amdOpw7yQWM8
Archaeologists Find Fabled Crusader Moat Outside Jerusalem’s Old City Walls
By JNS News Service - 13 Tammuz 5779 – July 16, 20190
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Photo Credit: Virginia Winters courtesy of Israel Nature and Parks Authority

The excavation near the Old City's southern wall. / Virginia Winters courtesy of Israel Nature and Parks Authority
Archaeologists have discovered an 11th century moat just outside Jerusalem’s Old City walls—the first hard evidence of a fabled Crusader siege against the city 920 years ago. Attested to in several historical documents, many scholars nonetheless believed the siege was a myth.

The groundbreaking find was made as part of the Mount Zion Archaeological Project, a joint international effort led by by professor Shimon Gibson and Prof. James Tabor of the University of North Carolina in Charlotte in cooperation with Dr. Rafi Lewis of Ashkelon Academic College. The excavation site is part of the Jerusalem Walls National Park, where archaeologists have previously found a first-century Jewish mansion and a rare gold coin stamped with the face Roman Emperor Nero.

Related Story: Magnificent Gold Jewelry Excavated in Mount Zion National Park

The five-week battle for Jerusalem between Crusader armies and the Fatimid Caliphate which controlled the region in 1099 C.E. came to a head in July 15 of that year, with Raymond IV, Count of Toulouse, one of the leaders of the First Crusade, attacking the city from the south while another Christian force erected a tower to breach the city walls from the north.

Raymond of Aguilers, who wrote a contemporary account of the battle, described a moat dug by the Muslim defenders to thwart attackers to the south. According to his chronicles, the count promised golden dinars to all Crusaders who would help fill the ditch so he could build a stable siege tower against the wall.

“Anyone who ever dealt with the Crusade in Jerusalem knows this story. … It’s a very saucy bit of story,” said Mount Zion team co-director Lewis according to GeekWire. “But nobody ever found the ditch, so people said maybe [the story was] made up.”

Professor Gibson said the realization they had uncovered the ditch began to set in when he noticed that the dirt layers were not sloping away from the city wall, but rather toward it, in a manner consistent with a ditch or moat which had been filled in.

According to Raymond’s account, the siege ultimately succeeded, but the tower was burnt down. When the northern force conquered the city, Crusaders spent a week slaughtering Muslim and Jewish residents of the city.

Over five years, the team mapped and dated the layers and artifacts, revealing a 13-foot-deep, 56-foot-wide moat. A blackened layer found atop the moat is believed to be evidence of the 1153 civil war between Crusader King Baldwin III of Jerusalem and his mother, Queen Melisende.

In a house discovered adjacent to the site archaeologists also found arrowheads, two cross pendants of the type typically worn by Crusaders, and a 3-inch piece of gold jewelry with pearls, jade and glass, consistent with Fatimid Muslim style.
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Post  Admin on Sat 13 Jul 2019, 11:21 pm

'This is Not Mythology': Archaeologists Dig Up the Bible at Ancient City of Shiloh
01-12-2019
Chris Mitchell
Help CBN News reach more people with the Christian Perspective on today's headlines – please share this story with your friends.

JERUSALEM, Israel – Driving along the route known as the Way of the Patriarchs in Samaria, the heart of biblical Israel, you'll come to ancient Shiloh.
https://www1.cbn.com/cbnnews/israel/2018/july/this-is-not-mythology-archaeologists-dig-up-the-bible-at-ancient-city-of-shiloh?fbclid=IwAR0mCuEfQKCEcqM3sG8nUQlf7jOkdOTg4PFWD9G9Aa6lkrYqQ154hzEEyOw

Aerial view of ancient Shiloh, Photo, CBN News, Jonathan Goff

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The Bible says this is the place where Joshua parceled out the Promised Land to the 12 tribes of Israel. It's also where the Tabernacle of the Lord stood for more than 300 years.

Dr. Scott Stripling directs the excavations at Shiloh. Along with dozens of volunteers, he and his crew are digging into history.


Excavation Director Dr. Scott Stripling, Photo, CBN News, Jonathan Goff
 
"Welcome to ancient Shiloh," Stripling greeted us. "This is the first capital of ancient Israel and it's a sacred spot because the Mishkan was here, the Tabernacle, where people came to connect with God."


Photo, CBN News, Jonathan Goff
 
"We're dealing with real people, real places, real events," he continued. "This is not mythology. The coins that we excavated today – we're talking about coins of Herod the Great, Pontius Pilate, Thestos, Felix, Agrippa the First, Agrippa the Second. The Bible talks about these people. We've got the image right here."

That 'image' includes a fortified wall built by the Canaanites. The team finds a treasure trove of artifacts there, which includes ancient coins and some 2,000 pieces of pottery a day.


Photo, CBN News, Jonathan Goff

"Now, this one was from yesterday," he said. "It's been washed already so you see the same form right out of the ground in yesterday and those are those handles from the stone vessels. Remember, Jesus' first miracle in Cana? There were stone jars full of water. That's that ritual purity culture of the first century."

An archaeologist like Dr. Stripling looks at these shards as a fine time piece.   
 
"Just like your great grandmother's pottery is different from your pottery that you're using today…once we learn the pottery, then we can use it as our primary means of dating."


Unearthing ancient pottery, Photo, CBN News, Jonathan Goff

Stripling says literally digging into the Bible can change your life."

"You can read the Bible, you can walk the Bible, but the ultimate is to dig the Bible," he said. "You know, when we actually get into the swill, like these students from Lea University. They're literally – it's under their fingernails and in their nose and in their mouth and their ears and they're exposing this ancient culture. It becomes one with you. It's sort of like we came out of the soil and as we dig into the soil, we connect with God and with each other, I think, in a very important way," he said.


Photo, CBN News, Jonathan Goff

Abigail Leavitt, a student at the University of Pikesville, serves as object registrar.
"I love getting my hands dirty. I love digging in the dirt. It's my favorite thing," she told CBN News.  

While people of all age volunteer at the dig, the main drivers are students like Abigail.

"It's tiring and exhausting, but it's really rewarding," she said. "It's exciting to find ancient things – things that have been just waiting for us for thousands of years."


Abigail Leavitt, Photo, CBN News, Jonathan Goff
 
Leavitt says the Bible comes alive in the dirt.

"I read the Bible totally differently than I did before I came here, and I can see when I read the Bible I know the places, I know what's going on. I understand it more deeply, especially where previous archaeologists have claimed the archaeology disproves the Bible. But when we dig here, we find that everything matches. You read it in the Bible. You dig in the dirt and there it is," she said.

Stripling said, "Archaeology doesn't set out to prove or disprove the Bible. What we want to do is to illuminate the biblical text, the background of the text, so to set it in a real world culture to what we call verisimilitude."

"So, we get an ancient literary description. Now, we have a material culture that matches that," he continued. "Chris, you're sitting where Samuel and Eli and Hannah and these people that we have read about, they came just like us, needing answers, needing to connect with God, needing forgiveness."

Stripling says they dig into the past and find lessons for the present.



"One of the faith lessons for us is that God is the potter and we are the clay. And even if our lives are broken like these vessels are, God told Jeremiah after He had told him to go to Shiloh and see what He had done, He told him to go to the potter's house and look at a flawed vessel and see how the potter puts it back on the wheel and works out the imperfections. So my faith lesson is this: Yes we're imperfect, but if we will allow God, He wants to put us [on] His potter's wheel and make us a vessel of honor."

Stripling often cites Psalm 102.

"O Zion, your servants take delight in its stones and favor its dust." (Ps. 102:14)

"For me this is sacred soil. This is where the Mishkan was that answers the most basic of all human questions: 'How do I connect with God?' And I think that's their most basic question," he said.

"I know I messed up. I know that God is holy. How do I bridge that gap when I sin against other people, when I sin against God. Ultimately, Chris, if the Bible is true, then the God of the Bible has a moral claim on our lives. And as we establish the veracity of the biblical text, I hope that everyone watching would just think about that – that God loves us and He has a moral claim on our lives."

What Ever Happened to the Treasures of the Second Temple? click Here to Learn More.
Where Are The Treasures Now?
In A.D. 70, Roman legions destroyed the second temple of Jerusalem. But centuries of eyewitnesses say the temple treasures survived and were carried away to Rome, Carthage and Byzantium, leaving an ominous trail of destruction. Where is what’s left of the treasure today?

CBN Documentaries presents a story of mystery. Why did the unimaginable wealth contained in Jerusalem’s Second Temple seem to carry a curse to every place it rested? The pages of ancient history, modern archeology, and the Bible itself have lured treasure-seeking explorers to attempt to piece together this puzzling mystery.

Now the CBN Documentaries team has traced the journey of the treasure and uncovered more tantalizing clues to its final resting place.

Hosted by Gordon Robertson, Treasures of the Second Temple picks up where unsuccessful explorers have long given up. The once-cold trail has heated up to reveal an intriguing possibility: Could the treasure be in Jerusalem? Is it stored deep under the Old City, never to be found? What is the destiny of the treasures of the Second Temple? How much longer will the mystery remain unsolved?
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Post  Admin on Mon 08 Jul 2019, 9:57 am

https://worldisraelnews.com/biblical-ziklag-found-city-where-king-david-fled-saul/?
Biblical Ziklag found: City where King David fled Saul
 July 8, 2019
Biblical Ziklag found: City where King David fled SaulSite believed to be the location of the biblical Ziklag. (IAA)
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The Israel Antiquities Authority says it has found the biblical city of Ziklag.
By World Israel News Staff

Researchers from the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, the Israel Antiquities Authority and Macquarie University in Sydney, Australia, believe they have discovered the Philistine town of Ziklag, immortalized in the Biblical narrative.

Ziklag is mentioned multiple times in the Bible in relation to David (in 1 Samuel and 2 Samuel). According to the Biblical narrative, Achish, King of Gat, allowed David to find refuge in Ziklag while fleeing King Saul.

It was from Ziklag that David departed to be anointed king in Hebron. According to scripture, Ziklag was also the scene of a dramatic event, in which the Amalekites, desert nomads, raided and burned the town taking women and children captive.

The excavation, which began in 2015 at the site of Khirbet a-Ra‘i in the Judaean foothills – between Kiryat Gat and Lachish, has proceeded in cooperation with Prof. Yosef Garfinkel, Head of the Institute of Archaeology at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, Saar Ganor of the Israel Antiquities Authority and Dr. Kyle Keimer and Dr. Gil Davis of Macquarie University in Sydney, Australia.

Ziklag volunteers
Volunteers at excavation (IAA)

The excavation was funded by Joey Silver of Jerusalem, Aron Levy of New Jersey, and the Roth Family and Isaac Wakil both of Sydney. The excavation has been ongoing for seven seasons with large areas being exposed – approximately 1,000 square miles, leading to this new identification for Ziklag.

The name Ziklag is unusual in the lexicon of names in the Land of Israel, since it is not of the local Canaanite-Semitic language. It is a Philistine name, given to the town by an alien population of immigrants from the Aegean.

Twelve different suggestions to identify Ziklag have been put forward, such as Tel Halif near Kibbutz Lahav, Tel Sera in the Western Negev, Tel Sheva, and others.

However, according to the researchers, none of these sites produced continuous settlement which included both a Philistine settlement and a settlement from the era of King David. At Khirbet a-Ra‘i, however, features from both these populations have been found.

Ziklag excavation
Volunteer exposing pottery at site (IAA)

Evidence of a settlement from the Philistine era has been found there, from the 12-11th centuries B.C.E. Spacious, massive stone structures have been uncovered containing finds typical of the Philistine civilization.

Additional finds are foundation deposits, including bowls and an oil lamp – offerings laid beneath the floors of the buildings out of a belief that these would bring good fortune in the construction.

Stone and metal tools were also found. Similar finds from this era were discovered in the past in excavations in Ashdod, Ashkelon, Ekron and Gath–the cities of the Lords of the Philistines.

Above the remains of the Philistine settlement was a rural settlement from the time of King David, from the early 10th century B.C.E. This settlement came to an end in an intense fire that destroyed the buildings.

Nearly one hundred complete pottery vessels were found in the various rooms. These vessels are identical to those found in the contemporary fortified Judaean city of Khirbet Qeiyafa – identified as biblical Sha‘arayim – in the Judaean foothills. Carbon 14 tests date the site at Khirbet a-Ra‘i to the time of King David.

Clay vessels from Ziklag (IAA)

The great range of complete vessels is testimony to the interesting everyday life during the reign of King David. Large quantities of storage jars were found during the excavation – medium and large -which were used for storing oil and wine. Jugs and bowls were also found decorated in the style known as “red slipped and hand burnished,” typical to the period of King David.

Following a regional archaeological study in the Judaean foothills managed by Professors Garfinkel and Ganor, a picture of the region’s settlement in the early Monarchic era is emerging: the two sites – Ziklag and Sha‘arayim – are situated on the western frontier of the kingdom.

They are both perched atop prominent hills, overlooking main routes passing between the Land of the Philistines and Judea: Khirbet Qeiyafa in the Elah Valley sits opposite Philistine Gath, and Khirbet a-Ra‘i, sits opposite Ashkelon.

This geographic description is echoed in King David’s Lament, in which he mourns the death of King Saul and Jonathan in their battle against the Philistines: “Tell it not in Gath, publish it not in the streets of Ashkelon.”


https://www.timesofisrael.com/archaeologists-say-they-found-town-where-future-king-david-took-refuge-from-saul/?
Archaeologists say they found town where future king David took refuge from Saul
For decades scholars sought the elusive site of Ziklag, where the Bible says David was given shelter by Philistine King Achish
By AMANDA BORSCHEL-DAN
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Volunteers excavate pottery from Khirbet a-Ra'i, which archaeologists have identified as biblical Ziklag. (Excavation expedition to Khirbet a-Ra‘i)
Volunteers excavate pottery from Khirbet a-Ra'i, which archaeologists have identified as biblical Ziklag. (Excavation expedition to Khirbet a-Ra‘i)
In a finding sure to inflame the debate about the historicity of the biblical King David, an international team of archaeologists claims to have identified the lost city of Ziklag.

Based on artifacts and carbon 14 dating results of excavations since 2015, scholars proposed Monday that the archaeological site of Khirbet a-Ra‘i in the Judaean foothills is the site of the elusive Philistine town.

As attested in the books of Samuel, Ziklag, located between Kiryat Gat and Lachish, provided refuge to the future king David when he was on the run from King Saul. After his sojourn in Ziklag, David ascended the throne in Hebron.

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According to a joint press release from the Hebrew University in Jerusalem and the Israel Antiquities Authority, archaeologists discovered remains of a Philistine settlement from the 12-11th centuries BCE, which was followed by a rural settlement dating to the early 10th century BCE, which is in keeping with the biblical account. Carbon 14 dating supports the archaeologists’ timeline and identification, according to the press release.


A volunteer excavates pottery from Khirbet a-Ra’i, which archaeologists have identified as biblical Ziklag. (Excavation expedition to Khirbet a-Ra‘i)
As recorded in the Hebrew Bible, David settled at Ziklag for 14 months under the patronage of the Philistine King Achish of Gat, with 600 of his men and their families, and used it as a base to raid neighboring peoples.

While the then-Philistine vassal David attempted to join the army of his Philistine lord Achish to defeat Saul, retaliating Amalekites razed the town and took off with the Israelites’ women and children, along with much booty. (Spoiler: In the end, David prevailed.)

According to the press release, in addition to the cultural transition between Philistine buildings and the presumed later Israelite camp, the Davidic-era settlement shows remains of an intense fire that destroyed it.

Later in the Hebrew Bible, in the Book of Nehemiah, the town is mentioned again as a base for Jews who returned from Babylon.


A volunteer excavates at Khirbet a-Ra’i, which archaeologists have identified as biblical Ziklag. (Excavation expedition to Khirbet a-Ra‘i)
For decades, archaeologists have sought the location of the elusive Ziklag, for which roughly a dozen sites have been suggested, without scholarly consensus. Those previous sites were largely dismissed due to lack of signs of settlement transitioning from Philistine cultural evidence to Israelite remains from the time of David, or due to lack of evidence of the widespread ruin wrought by the Amalekites, as described in the Hebrew Bible.

According to leading archaeologists Prof. Yosef Garfinkel, head of the Institute of Archaeology at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem; the IAA’s Saar Ganor; and Dr. Kyle Keimer and Dr. Gil Davis of Macquarie University in Sydney, Australia, the proposed site of Khirbet a-Ra‘i has all the required qualifications.

The joint IAA and Hebrew University press release said that after seven dig seasons that uncovered some 1,000 sq.m., the archaeological team found evidence of a Philistine-era settlement from the 12-11th centuries BCE, among which were massive stone structures and typical Philistine cultural artifacts, including stylized pottery in foundation deposits — good luck offerings laid beneath a building’s flooring.

Those artifacts, along with stone and metal tools, are similar to ones found in other Philistine cities, including Ashdod, Ashkelon, Ekron and Gath.


Pottery assemblage from Khirbet a-Ra’i, which archaeologists have identified as biblical Ziklag. (Excavation expedition to Khirbet a-Ra‘i)
The name Ziklag is of Philistine origin and does not have roots in Semitic languages. Recently, a large scientific study of Philistine DNA matched their origins to the Aegean region, which had similar pottery styles during the 12th century BCE, the time period in which the Philistine ancestors are thought to have migrated to the Land of Israel.

At Khirbet a-Ra‘i to date, archaeologists have uncovered some 100 complete pottery vessels used for storing wine and oil, among other uses. According to Garfinkel, who led excavations at the contemporary fortified Judaean city of Sha‘arayim (Khirbet Qeiyafa), jugs and bowls decorated with a “red slipped and hand-burnished” finish are typical of the period of King David.

The excavations leading to the new proposed identification for Ziklag were funded by Joey Silver of Jerusalem, Aron Levy of New Jersey, and the Roth Family and Isaac Wakil both of Sydney.
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Post  Admin on Thu 04 Jul 2019, 7:48 pm

https://worldisraelnews.com/dna-shows-that-the-philistines-arch-enemy-of-the-israelites-came-from-europe
DNA shows that the Philistines, arch-enemy of the Israelites, came from Europe
 July 4, 2019
DNA shows that the Philistines, arch-enemy of the Israelites, came from EuropeBattles between the Israelites and the Philistines (Wikipedia)
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DNA remains extracted from 10 individuals buried in Ashkelon display molecular links showing “an affinity with European-related populations,” say researchers.

By World Israel News Staff 

A study to determine the place of origin of the Philistines has shown that “a substantial proportion of their ancestry was derived from a European population,” according to the international team from the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History and the Leon Levy Expedition to Ashkelon.

DNA extracted from the remains of 10 individuals buried in Ashkelon, along Israel’s southern Mediterranean coast where the Philistines were known to be based, displayed molecular links which “showed an affinity with European-related populations,” say the researchers.

Using advanced technology, the researchers analyzed genome-wide data that had been retrieved from people who lived in Ashkelon during the Bronze and Iron Age. The European-derived ancestry that was discovered by the team was said to have been introduced into the Ashkelon area around the time of the estimated arrival of the Philistines in the 12th century BCE.

A paper by the researchers was published Wednesday in Science Advances magazine.

“This genetic distinction is due to European-related gene flow introduced in Ashkelon during either the end of the Bronze Age or the beginning of the Iron Age. This timing is in accord with estimates of the Philistines’ arrival to the coast of the Levant, based on archaeological and textual records,” explains Michal Feldman of the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, leading author of the study.

The Philistines are known from their biblical battles with the ancient Israelites, including the Philistine Goliath’s defeat at the hands of the young David. “However, the ancient texts tell little about Philistine origins,” the researchers noted.

From 1985 to 2016, the Leon Levy Expedition to Ashkelon, a project of the Harvard Semitic Museum and under license from the Israel Antiquities Authority, took up the search for the origin of the Philistines at Ashkelon, one of the five Philistine cities mentioned in the Bible. The excavations culminated in the discovery, between 2013 and 2016, of the first Philistine cemetery ever to be found, according to the team involved in the work.
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